Journal : People's Daily (Chinese) Date : Author : Lv Pengfei Page No. : 22
URL :  http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2015-07/24/nw.D110000renmrb_20150724_4-22.htm

Steve graduated as an MA student of politics this year from Delhi University of India says “I want to get a job in some transnational company. I have been finding jobs since this May, but I haven’t got any results.” He said. Steve was a civil servant before he started his post graduation study. However, he never thought that it would be difficult finding a job after his graduation.

 

Currently, it is a common problem for young people in India especially college students to find jobs. Nehru University is a well-known high institution for learning. Surprisingly, instead of bustling with job fairs, the campus is “very quiet” during the graduation season. A Chinese overseas student explained the situation of many graduates: “Finding jobs is so difficult. Many of my Indian schoolmates are not planning to find one. They just want to continue staying in school. The school accommodation and meals are cheap. The pressure is much low than living out of the campus. If they can be doctoral candidates, they may get the national subsidize, which is more than what they can get from working. So why rushing to find jobs?

 

In the meantime, the difficulty for young Indians to find jobs also reflects deeper problems in India’s economic structure. India’s economy has been in rapid development since 2000, and now its economic scale reached 2000 billion USD, attracting the world’s attention as an emerging market, thanks to the service sector with IT industry as a pillar. The service sector contributes 65% to the country’s GDP while basic industry has only 18%. However, the service sector absorbs limited labor forces. An economic research released by the Indian government this year shows that the service sector only absorbed 24.3% of the whole employed population, the lowest among the three industries. The number for the basic industry is 26.8%, just a few percentage points higher. The underdevelopment of labor-intensive industry is a weakness in the job market.

 

From the fiscal year of 2004-2005 to 2011-2012, the yearly growth rate of employment is only 0.5%. But from the fiscal year of 2005-2006 to 2012-2013, the high education admission rate doubled by 21.1%.The unbalanced economic structure has given rise to another strange phenomenon. A research released by India’s Ministry of Labor and Employment for the fiscal year of 2013-2014 shows, the unemployment rate of young people who have received high education reaches as high as 28%, while the number is only 4% for those who have only received education lower than primary school level, and 2% for illiterates. The idea of “Education is useless” again blows young Indians’ confidence.

 

Certainly, Indian government is not ignoring this problem. A Technology Development Department was founded last November to take over more than 70 technology training projects from over 20 ministries and commissions, aiming at ensuring young people who have received standard education to be equipped with skills to get jobs. Besides, India passed National Employment Security Law for Rural Areas in 2005, which was enforced in 2006. The law stipulates providing work force in every household in rural areas with at least 100 days paid non-technique jobs every year. Indian president Pranab Mukherjee said in a speech on June that by the year of 2030, India would provide 500 million people with training for technology development projects. However, the key to the problem for young Indians to find jobs is that lack of “places to apply their skills”. It may not ease the job-finding pressure in the first place with only technique training measures. Indian Prime Minister Modi brought forward the slogan of “Make in India” after he took office, hoping to change India into a center of manufacturing. If the slogan would be truly put into practice, and India’s manufacturing industry  soars, the employment headaches for the young thus may be solved.

 

印度 高学历青年期待“用武之地”(又到一年就业季)

来源:《人民日报》

时间:2015年7月24日

吕鹏飞 发自印度

 

 

印度高学历青年期待“用武之地”(又到一年就业季)

斯蒂夫是印度德里大学政治学系一名应届硕士毕业生,来自印度东北部的曼尼普尔邦。“我想到跨国公司工作,从5月就开始找工作,到现在也没有任何结果。”斯蒂夫原是一名公务员,后辞职读研,没想到毕业时找工作却成了难题。

当前,印度青年尤其是高校学生就业难是一个普遍的问题。尼赫鲁大学是印度著名高等学府和文科重镇,让人感到意外的是,到了毕业季,尼赫鲁大学校园竟是“静悄悄”,全然没有热火朝天的校园招聘场景。一名尼赫鲁大学的中国留学生解释了许多毕业生的想法:“找工作太难,我的不少印度同学都没打算找,就想这么一直在学校待着。学校住宿便宜,伙食也便宜,比在社会上压力小很多。他们如果能考上博士,申请到国家补助,甚至比在外面工作拿的钱还多,为啥要急着找工作呢?”

同时,青年就业难也折射出印度经济结构的深层次问题。自2000年以来,印度经济快速增长,目前经济规模约2万亿美元,成为备受瞩目的新兴市场国家。印度经济的崛起,以软件业为支柱的服务业厥功至伟。当前,印度的国内生产总值中,服务业占了65%,工业只占18%。服务业虽然占比高,但是它所吸纳的就业人口却很有限,根据印度政府今年公布的经济调查,服务业吸纳的就业人口只占全部就业人口的24.3%,在三大产业中垫底,工业所吸纳的就业人口也只是稍多一点,占比为26.8%。没有发展出大规模的劳动密集型产业是当前印度就业领域的软肋。

2004—2005财年至2011—2012财年,印度的年均就业增长率只有0.5%,而2005—2006财年至2012—2013财年,印度的高等教育入学率却已增长了一倍,达到了21.1%。一方面是疲软萧条的就业市场,另一方面又是求职无门的莘莘学子,印度青年就业难的问题异常突出。这一畸形的经济结构还产生另外一个怪现象。印度劳工和就业部发布的2013—2014财年第四季度劳动和就业调查显示,接受过高等教育的青年失业率高达28%,而具有小学及以下文化教育程度的青年失业率只有4%,文盲的失业率仅为2%。“读书无用论”再次重创了印度青年的信心。

当然,印度政府对于解决青年就业问题也并非无所作为。印度政府去年11月成立了技术发展部,将过去印度20多个部委所扶植的70多个技术培训项目全部接管过来,它的宗旨之一就是确保接受正规教育的青年能够获得就业所需的技术。印度还在2005年通过了《国家农村就业保障法》并于2006年付诸实施。该法案规定,将确保为农村每户劳动力提供每年不少于100天的带薪非技术类工作。印度总统慕克吉6月底发表演讲时还指出,到2030年时,印度将为5亿人提供技术发展项目的培训。不过,当前印度青年就业难的关键在于青年尤其是受过高等教育的青年缺少“用武之地”,只靠技术培训或许无法从根本上缓解就业压力。印度总理莫迪上台后提出了“印度制造”的口号,希望将印度打造成制造业中心,如果这一口号能够真正付诸实施,印度制造业能够实现腾飞,印度青年就业难的局面将可能得到改观。

(本报新德里7月23日电)

 

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