Journal : China Business News (Yicai.com) Date : Author : Miao Qi, staff reporter Page No. : NA
URL : http://www.yicai.com/news/2016/01/4735853.html,

印度工业巨头拉森集团首席财务官:除了钱,印度最需要中国技术

作者:《第一财经周刊》记者缪琦 Author: Miao Qi, staff reporter of China Business News

 

19世纪初,几名掌握了工程技术的工程师第一次来到了印度。虽然当时那里的一切都由政府掌控、无法自由发展,但他们仍然发现了这个市场的有趣之处。于是,定居、成立工作室,再从市场借钱,建成第一个工厂,到现在成为印度最大的工业工程集团,印度拉森-特博洛集团(下称“拉森集团”)成长的每一步都打着印度的烙印。

In early 19th century, several engineers arrived in India for the first time in their life, with nothing but their core techniques. They soon found that everything here was in the control of the government, and “free development” was a mission impossible. But they also became fond of the unique fun of this market, and decided to stay. From the first studio to the first factory – although with borrowed money – they never thought that their endeavor would one day grow into the largest corporation group of industrial engineering of the world. Larsen & Toubro Limited (hereinafter referred to as L&T) tells a typical Indian story with every single step of its growth.

在没有钱的时代,他们靠着创意和工程技术发了家。到如今,这个印度最大的工业巨头以工程和技术为主业,兼营高科技工程、核电工程、装备制造业、服务业和信息技术等产业,已实现了年销售额150亿美元、拥有10万多名员工、业务覆盖全球30多个国家的规模。

Starting with virtually no money, they initially got rich with their creativities and engineering techniques. Right now, L&T has become India’s largest company of engineering and construction, and it also specializes in the subfields of high-tech engineering, nuclear power engineering, equipment manufacture, service industry and information technology, etc. The annual sales volume of L&T has exceeded 15 billion US dollars, and it now boasts more than 100 thousand employers, and extensive businesses in over 30 countries around the world.

由于印度政府在包括农业和畜牧业、采矿业、铁路基础设施和金融服务等20个行业,对外商直接投资均设立了限制,中国企业在投资这些领域时必须找到印度当地的企业组成联营体才有资格参与竞标。因此,作为印度的成熟企业,拉森-特博洛成为了不少中国企业在当地的合作伙伴。目前,隧道股份上海城建印度基础设施有限公司就与拉森集团组成了联营体,共同建造印度首都德里的地铁项目。

The Indian government has restrictions of FDI (foreign direct investment) in a score of industries, including agriculture, stockbreeding, mining, railway infrastructure and financial services. If Chinese companies are interested in investment in India, they have to found a joint venture with Indian companies before they are qualified for the bidding process. As a Indian company of international fame and well-rounded services, L&T soon becomes the partner of a number of Chinese companies who aspire to break into Indian market. The Indian Infrastructure Co., Ltd of Shanghai Urban Construction Group has recently founded a joint venture with L&T, and together they will take care of the railway project of New Delhi, capital city of India.

在接受第一财经记者的采访时,印度拉森-特博洛有限公司首席财务官R•尚卡尔•拉曼(下称“尚卡尔”)表示,如果中国投资者带来资金的同时还能带来技术,那会给印度带来很大助益。他认为,FDI的最大动力应该是技术,因此中国投资者在投入资金的同时应该优先考虑技术的输入。

In a recent interview with China Business News, R. Shankar Raman (hereinafter referred to as Shankar), CFO of L&T, believes that India will obviously benefit from Chinese investors if they can bring funds and technologies together. He also believes that technology is the essential motive of FDI, and Chinese investors are supposed to give priority to technologies, rather than funds, when they decide to invest in India.

和中国企业好像夫妻关系” We’re like “husband and wife”

提起和中国企业的合作,尚卡尔用了“备受鼓舞”一词。他表示,拉森集团每年从中国进口的设备接近1亿美元,看到了中国拥有的强大基建能力,也从与中企的合作中学到了技术和经验。

Shankar defines the cooperation between L&T and Chinese companies as “encouraging”. He says that L&T’s importation of equipment from China amounts to 100 million US dollars. L&T envies the China’s powerful capacities of infrastructure constructions, and has gained a lot of technologies and experiences via mutual cooperation.

“印度在基建领域有相当巨大的潜力,中国的例子显示出基建对于经济发展的重要性,而印度可以学习并复制这种模式。随着印度基建的日趋完善,我们会有越来越多的机会可以和中国企业合作。”尚卡尔告诉本报记者,在过去十多年里,印度大约35%的电力设备都由中国企业提供。就这个领域来说,拉森也是中国企业的竞争者。

“India’s potential in infrastructure constructions in huge. China is a perfect example to show what infrastructure constructions mean to national economy, and India can learn from and even copy China’s successful mode. As India’s infrastructure grows complete and mature, the opportunities are also increasing for both countries,” Shankar thus tells reporter of China Business News. He also mentions that around 35% of the electrical power equipment in India is provided by Chinese companies, and L&T is regarded as a powerful competitor of them in this field.

他用这样一句话来描述他们和中国企业的关系:“这就好像是一对夫妻的关系,有时候要争论,有时候又彼此受益、合作愉快。”

Shankar has a very vivid comparison to describe their relationship with Chinese companies: “We are like husband and wife – we argue sometimes, but on most occasions we benefit from each other and love our cooperation.”

印度想像中国那样高速发展  India wants to copy China’s mode of rapid development

 在尚卡尔看来,印度有两个选择,一个是按照自己的能力慢慢完善基础设施建设,那可能需三四十年;另一个则是像中国那样快速发展。“要像中国那样,我们需要高速增长的经济,为了实现经济的高速增长,就需要资金的投入。”

In Shankar’s opinion, India has two choices. It’ll take India 30 to 40 years if she decides to consummate her infrastructure constructions in petty paces in accordance with her own economic capacity, or India can copy China’s mode of rapid development. “If we want to copy China’s mode, we need rapid-growing economy like China. If we want to achieve that target, funds are must at this moment.”

他表示,放眼全球来看,印度给外国投资者提供了诸多好处,比如巨大的市场、大量的年轻劳动力、接受良好教育的人才、语言的便利以及完善的法律系统。“并不是所有都能提供像印度这样的优势。所以中印两国高层的越来越深的接触并不奇怪。”

From a global perspective, Shankar says, India is showing her hospitalities for foreign investors. India is attractive to foreign investors with her huge market, abundant young labor forces, well-educated talents, language convenience and well-rounded legal system. “Not every country can provide a sound business environment like India. No wonder the contact of senior leaders of both countries is becoming more frequent in recent one year or two.”

当然,尚卡尔也强调,印度是一个和中国截然不同的国家,需要花时间去理解当地的文化和运营规律,这和印度企业也很难快速地在中国良好投资一样。“中国人和印度人需要加强联系。回顾16世纪前后,中印两国拥有非常好的互通和联系,但却在几十年前淡化了。这种趋势必须改变,两国的人民需要建立更紧密的关系,如果两国人民联系紧密,彼此信任,那两国的商业合作自然就会加强。”他表示。

Shankar also stresses that China and India are very different countries, and it takes time and energy to learn the cultures and operation rules of each other. Likewise, it takes very long time for Indian companies to shine with their investment in China. “Chinese and Indian people need to communicate with each other more often. Let’s look back to the history of 16thcentury, China had very good channels of communications and exchanges with India. But their ties were weakened in decades ago, and now we are in urgent need of a change. Even closer ties are to be established between the two peoples, and our mutual trust will finally lead to strengthened business cooperation,” he says.

除了钱,印度最期待中国技术  India is expecting the technologies of China, not only money

对中国企业来说,尚卡尔认为,这是进入印度的好时机,因为两国高层的关系正在改善,此前两国关系的负面影响逐渐减弱,双方都更加聚焦务实的经贸和商业合作。

Shankar believes that it’s a perfect time now for Chinese companies to invest in India. With the communications between senior leaders of both countries becoming more often, the negative factors of their bilateral relationship is left in the past, and they are working towards a pragmatic end of economic and commercial cooperation.

然而,目前中国在印度的外商直接投资(FDI)占比可谓是微不足道。他提出,如果中国投资者带来资金的同时还能带来技术,那就会给印度带来很大助益。“我认为FDI的最大动力应该是技术,所以中国投资者在投入资金的同时应该优先考虑技术的输入,然后是设备。印度政府也尤其欢迎这些技术的进入。”根据尚卡尔的观察,现在的印度更多还只是被中国企业看作是产品销售的市场,并没有太多涉及到FDI。

The FDI of Chinese companies in India only accounts for a small part of the total number India receive. Shankar believes thatIndia will obviously benefit from Chinese investors if they can bring funds and technologies together.“I think thattechnology is the essential motive of FDI, and Chinese investors are supposed to give priority to technologies, rather than funds, when they decide to invest in India. The Indian government welcomes the importation of your technologies.” Through his observation, most Chinese companies value the huge potential of product sales in Indian market, but FDI is not too much concerned.

他建议那些来印度投资的中国企业最好能找到当地的合作伙伴,这是获取成功的关键。“要想在印度成功实现本土化,就需要印度人面孔去和当地政府、机构、社区和百姓沟通。资金和技术都并没有语言障碍,但本土化的运营需要。”尚卡尔表示,从外资企业在印度的投资案例来看,大都是先与当地企业合作开始,然后慢慢开始完全本土化运营。

Shankar also suggests that Chinese companies find trustworthy local partners before they come to India, which he sees as the key to success. “To achieve perfect localization in India, Chinese companies need an “Indian face” to communicate with local governments, institutions, communities and residents. Language barrier is not a problem for funds and technologies, but it is a must for localized operation.” He studies the successful cases of foreign companies who invest in India, and finds that most of them found the right partners here, and then started their localized operation in steady paces.

投资印度未来的三块蛋糕 Three pieces of cakes for investors who eye on India

 现任印度总理莫迪正在大力推动当地的基础设施建设的发展,这在尚卡尔看来是一块巨大的蛋糕。除此之外,印度的城市化建设和能源领域也都存在不少商机。但对中国投资者来说,要享用这块蛋糕并不那么容易。

Right now, Indian Prime Minister Modi is making great efforts to boost infrastructure constructions in India, and Shankar regards that as a piece of cake for investors who eye on India. Apart from infrastructure, abundant business opportunities also lie in the fields of urban constructions and energies. For Chinese investors, it is by no means an easy task to have a bit of the cake.

尚卡尔表示,在印度提到基础设施建设,首先想到的是交通,比如公路、高铁和地铁等。这类的资金来源主要有三块:第一是印度国家政府,第二是商业银行,第三是像拉森这样的企业。但商业银行有一定的局限性,因为它的资金主要来自于个人3~7年的储蓄,和基础设施建设投资15甚至20多年的周期不匹配。因此,政府开始考虑,是否要引入社会保险类的企业投资,毕竟这类资金的回报周期相对较长。他建议,对于中国企业来说,如果想投资印度的基建,也最好有这类长期资金的支持。

Shankar understands that transportation is the primary choice when people talk about infrastructure constructions: highway, high-speed train and subway, etc. The funds of these projects usually come from three resources: federal government of India, commercial banks, and large companies like L&T. But there are too many restrictions for funds of commercial banks, which usually come from individual savings with terms of 3 to 7 years, but the investment period of infrastructure constructions usually lasts for 15 to 20 years. In light of that, the government is considering including enterprise investment of social insurance, whose period of investment return is relatively longer. He suggests that China companies find reliable long-term fund support before they consider investment in infrastructure constructions.

其次,印度的城市化也存在不少的投资机会。尚卡尔提出,印度有大量的小城市和乡村需要改造升级,与此同时,印度还在推智慧城市的建设,这种改造需要数亿美元的资金。除此之外,城镇化还需要新建大量的医院、学校、办公楼和教堂或寺庙等公共设施,这其中也大有商机。可以说,印度的一切能提高百姓生活水平和质量的方面都存在商机,包括水、电、交通、住宿和物联网等等,也就是智能城市的建设。

The investment opportunities are also huge in urban constructions in India. Shankar introduces that upgrade is an urgent issue for many small and micro towns and villages of India, and the “Smart Cities Mission” also calls for hundreds of millions of US dollars to finish the transformation program. Besides, urban constructions include infrastructure programs like hospitals, schools, office buildings, churches and temples, and abundant opportunities lie within. In a word, opportunities are everywhere in the fields that can improve the living standard and quality of Indian people – water, electricity, transportation, residence and “Internet of Things” (a.k.a. “Smart Cities Mission”).

第三,印度在能源领域的发展也有很大空间。目前印度政府正在效仿中国的模式,推动当地的制造业,而制造业的发展需要更完善的电力系统和充足的能源供应。在过去十来年里,中国的设备已经大量进入印度市场了,近一半的电力设备都由中企提供。另外,印度也需要进口大量的油气资源,以及海水净化和水资源循环等项目。而太阳能发电也是印度政府目前大力推动的,现在的成本正在下降。

Apart from that, you cannot ignore the huge opportunities brought by energy. Inspired by the global influence of “Made in China”, the Indian government encourages domestic manufacturing industry with the initiative of “Make in India”. To boost the manufacturing industry in India, India demands a well-operated electrical power system and adequate power supplies. In the past decade, China-made equipment swarmed into Indian market, and now nearly half of electrical power equipment in India is provided by Chinese manufacturers. Besides, India is in urgent need of oil and gas resources by importation, and seawater cleaning program and circulation of water resource also demand more input. Solar power generation is also a program strongly promoted by the Indian government, and the costs are gradually reducing.

“几十年前,谁会想到高铁能普及?中国就这样做到了。所以对于印度的未来,工程类的建设也会非常关键。”尚卡尔说。

“Who would expect the omnipresent high-speed railways and trains decades ago? But China managed to do so. It’s a great lesson for India, as engineering construction is of vital importance for us in the future,” Shankar says.

在机遇面前,这个印度的中年人也对印度政府的效率有着更多期待。“希望印度政府可以推出更快速的基建计划,迅速落地。毕竟印度是个民主国家,政府不能拍脑袋做事,而协商就需要付出代价。”

The middle-aged Indian also confesses that we can expect more for the efficiency of the Indian government. “I hope that the Indian government has quicker decisions for programs of infrastructure constructions, and makes sure that they are executed without delay. After all, India is a large democracy, and the government has no right to act at its own will – but negotiations mean costs of time.

(感谢中国工商银行孟买分行的帮助。) (Special thanks to the Mumbai branch of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China)

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