Journal : Science and Technology Daily Date : Author : NA Page No. : NA
URL : http://www.wokeji.com/jbsj/sb_4440/201602/t20160206_2218104.shtml

在印度时间里体会“慢”幸福

作者:《科技日报》专栏作者胡一峰
Author: Hu Yifeng, Columnist of Science and Technology Daily

 

“带上止泻药”,当得知我要去印度时,好几个朋友对我这样说。虽然我对自己肠胃抵抗力颇有自信,但还是把一盒“蒙脱石散”装进行李箱,欣然启程了。这次印度之行时间短暂,停留之地却有四处,艾哈迈达巴德、那格浦尔、赖布尔和孟买,从地图上看,四个城市都在印度中南部,尤其是赖布尔,鲜有中国人之足迹。1月20日上午,我们一行人抵达了此行的第一站,艾哈迈达巴德,这里是甘地的故乡,被称为“中国的广东”、印度经济发展的奇迹。接待我们的印度朋友卡秀儿·贾瓦德有些遗憾地告诉我们,艾哈迈达巴德所在的古吉拉特邦实行禁酒令,在这儿不能“ganbai”(干杯)。我素不喜酒,听他这一说,反而对这座并不怎么漂亮的城市顿生些许好感。

“Remember to bring antidiarrheal.” Hearing that I was about to start a journey to India, several friends kindly advised me so. Although I have adequate confidence in the immunity of my intestines and stomach, I put a box of Montmorillonite Powder in my trunk. After that, I set off for India full of expectations. My itinerary included four stops: Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Raipur and Mumbai. You can easily find these 4 cities in the central-south part of India; among them, Raipur is a rare destination for Chinese visitors. On the morning of January 20th, I arrived in the first stop of my trip – Ahmedabad – together with my fellow travelers. Ahmedabad is the hometown of Mahatma Gandhi, and is also dubbed “Indian version of Guangdong” thanks to the economic miracles it has achieved of late. Cahill Jawad, our Indian friend who came to pick us up, told us in regret that alcohol is prohibited in Gujarat, the state in which Ahmedabad is located. Therefore, we were not allowed to “ganbei” (“bottom up”) here. I am not a heavy drinker, and Jawad’s introduction made a favorable impression (about this city) on me.

在印度,动物和人走得很近。白的、黑的、花的牛儿悠闲地在街上散步,偶然又走到路边的垃圾堆里翻找食物,在中国分派给牛的那些力气活儿一律由骆驼或大象承乏。在中国,牛的眼睛里总是流露出一股淡淡的哀伤,老牛尤其如此,但它们的印度同胞却显得很愉快,遇到熟人时,还会乖乖地伸出脑袋任其轻抚致意。而在环境清幽的甘地故居,一棵大松树下,一群花背小松鼠跳到离游客不足2米之处吃东西、嬉闹,任人轻呼、指点、拍照,毫不惊慌。

In India, animals are considered very close to human beings. During my trip, I often saw white, black, or white-black cattle roaming in the streets with leisure, and occasionally rummaging through leftover food in garbage heaps along the streets. In China, cattle are usually assigned some heavy work; but in India, such work is given to camels and elephants. You can often detect a hint of sadness in the eyes of cattle (notably old ones) when you see them in China; however, their “Indian peers” seemed so joyful to me. Especially when they met with “acquaintances”, they would tentatively stretch out the heads and allow people to touch. The former residence of Mahatma Gandhi is quiet and tranquil, and when I was resting under a giant pine tree, I saw a group of little squirrels eating and playing only 2 meters away from the tourists. They seemed not flurried at all, allowing people to cheer for them, point fingers and take photographs.

印度的大街上,摩托车、电三轮来去如电,就像早些年中国南方的某些城市一样,但我却觉得,印度人的内心宁静如水。到那格浦尔那天,正赶上当地举办“佛教音乐节”,空旷的“佛教复兴广场”临时搭起了席棚,约莫两千多个位子座无虚席,一位干瘦的老者神采飞扬地在台上演讲,听讲者凝神安坐、秩序井然。演讲结束后,中国的艺术家们举办音乐会,来听的人更多了,棚子外也站满了人。乐器是中国的,箜篌、琵琶、笛子和二胡,演奏的大部分是中国民族音乐,《喜洋洋》《花好月圆》《二泉映月》《夕阳箫鼓》《龙船》,但印度朋友依然听得很认真,并不时报以掌声。这样的音乐会一共举行了三场,并无人组织观众,大家免费入场,来去自由,但令我感叹的是,绝少中途离场、接打电话、大嚼零食之人,每场结束后,场地十分整洁,几乎不用清扫。

In the streets of India, motorcycles and electrical tricycles went by in a gust of wind, much like the situation in some cities in South China several years ago. During my trip, I was convinced that Indians are very good at finding inner peace and clearing their minds. When we arrived in Nagpur, we happened to run into the “Festival of Buddhist Music”. Several temporary mat sheds were put up in the open square named “Revival of Buddhism”, and over 2000 seats were occupied immediately. A skinny elderly man was making a keynote speech in very high spirit, and the audience was sitting in peace, and listening attentively without a wave stirring. After the keynote speech, a concert was started by Chinese musicians, and the size of audience grew bigger immediately, and some had to stand outside the mat sheds. The musicians were of course playing traditional Chinese instruments – Konghou, Pipa, flute and Urheen, and the repertoire included many renowned folk musical pierces of China – Xi Yang Yang (Jubilance), Hua Hao Yue Yuan (Blooming Flowers and Full Moon), Er Quan Ying Yue (The Moon Over a Fountain), Xi Yang Xiao Gu (Flute and Drum at Sunset) and Long Chuan (Dragon Boat). The Indian friends were listening so attentively, and rewarding the players with warm applauses from time to time. I joined another two similar concerts during my trip in India, and none of them was specially organized, and the tickets were free. I could not help marveling at the fact that the Indian audience seldom took a leave when the concert was going on, received untimely phone calls, or making noised by chewing snacks. After the concerts, the audience left the ground clean and tidy, and the dustmen didn’t have to worry at all.

在一份旅游攻略上曾读到过,在印度遇到乞讨的小朋友切不可滥施慈悲,否则受惠之乞儿呼朋引伴,无止无休。但除了在孟买,我未遇到此种情况。倒是在音乐会现场,常有十岁左右的孩子,彬彬有礼地走到我面前,睁着深眼窝里的大眼睛,伸出黝黑的小手来,说,您好!您来自中国吗,您贵姓?其中不乏衣衫破旧者,一望而知来自中下阶层的家庭。但他们对于外国人以及这些外国人带来的乐器和音乐,做到了我们读小学时经常被教导的,见到外国人,不卑不亢、不围观不尾随,体现出一种自在的气度。

Before the trip began, I read from a tour guide that you had better not be too generous when you meet beggars (specially children) in the streets of India, or they would summon their “partners” immediately, and you would be trapped in trouble for your generosity. However, I didn’t have to worry about this kind of situation in Mumbai. When I was attending the concerts, I was frequently greeted by Indian teenagers. They moved politely in front of me, extended their small, dark hands to me, with their eyes wide open: “Hello! Are you from China, sir? What’s your name, please?” Some of them were ragged, and I could tell from their clothing that they were from low-middle class families. However, they demonstrated the remarkable temperaments of being “neither overbearing nor servile”, and “neither onlookers nor taggers” when they met foreign guests, and the exotic music and instruments brought by the foreigners. As a matter of fact, we were also taught these valuable qualities by our elders when we were young.

很早以前,就读过奈保尔的《印度三部曲》,临行前,又找出来翻了翻,本以为离奈保尔的时代过去这么多年,印度人慢的习惯或许有了改变。及至到了印度,才发现奈保尔并未过时。又或许对“慢”的改变已经在印度发生了,但改变本身却被“慢”所熏染,所以在我们这些初来乍到的外人看来,依然“慢”得令人难以忍受。音乐会有一些中印合奏的曲目,当我们的音乐家希望准确了解印方的演奏细节,以便演出时配合得更好时,印度朋友总是摆摆脑袋,轻松地说,“即兴就好”!而预定4点开始的走台,往往到了5点还不能开始,当我们为7点的演出能否如期开场忧心如焚时,印度朋友却满脸“有谱儿”的神色,果不其然,演出到了8点才正式开始,观众也很有默契地在8点才姗姗而来,惬意地盘腿坐下。开场既然推迟了,结束自然也相应推迟。结束后,观众们又围到台上来,和艺术家们拍照合影,连说带比划地交谈,兴致耗尽才慢慢散去。我忽然想起《世说新语》中有一则故事:王子猷居山阴,夜大雪,眠觉,开室,命酌酒,四望皎然。因起彷徨,咏左思《招隐》诗。忽忆戴安道,时戴在剡,即便夜乘小船就之。经宿方至,迭门不前而返。人问其故,王曰:“吾本乘兴而行,兴尽而返,何必见戴?”乘兴而行,兴尽而返,向被视为魏晋风度的精髓所在。而魏晋时,源于印度的佛法已然东传,在上层尤有市场,知识分子中随兴而行的风气,或许也正受过印度文化的影响呢。

Long long ago, I’ve read the “India Trilogy” (India: A Million Mutinies Now, An Area of Darkness and India: A Wounded Civilization.) of V.S.Naipaul. Before the trip began, I found the three books and read them again. Naipaul’s time was decades before ours, and I assumed that the “slow” lifestyle of India might have changed. But shortly after I arrived in India I found that Naipaul’s narrations were not outdated at all. Or perhaps, the changes were taking place slowly with the notion of “being slow”. For new arrivals like us, the slowness of India was beyond our tolerance. There were several pieces in the concerts which were performed by Chinese and Indian players jointly, and the Chinese players would so carefully consult with every minute detail of their Indian peers, so as to achieve a better effect when the concerts were on. However, the Indian players would shake their heads and replied with ease: “Just improvise according to the situation” ! The final rehearsal was scheduled at 4 pm, but it didn’t begin until 5 pm. We become so worried about the concert, which was about to begin at 7 pm, but our Indian peers seemed to have a well-thought-out-plan, which appeared to us to be totally groundless. Well, we soon knew why – the concert didn’t begin until 8 pm, and the audience arrived “right on time”, as if they knew in advance about the 1-hour delay. They took their seats in leisure, with their legs crossed. In accordance, the concert ended 1 hour later than the time scheduled. After that, some of the Indian audience swarmed into the stage and took photos with Chinese musicians. They also communicated with each other (perhaps with gestures and guesses) with passion, and the concert didn’t actually end until midnight. I was reminded of a short story in Shi Shuo Xin Yu (A New Account of the Tales of the World). Wang Ziqiu was living in Shanying. It began to snow when he was taking a nap, and he took a few sips of wine after he woke up. In view of the snow-white world around his house, he was distracted by old memories and started to recite a poem. All of a sudden, he missed Dai Andao, one of his dearest friends so much. But Dai Andao was in Yan County at that moment, which would take a few days to get there. However, Wang Ziqiu didn’t hesitate for a minute, and immediately took a boat, heading for Yan County. He arrived a few days later, stood in front of Dai Andao’s house for a while, and started the return trip without bothering to knock the door. Few people understood what Wang Ziqiu did, and he replied: “I started the trip with enormous interest, but I found my interest exhausted the moment I arrived there – it made no difference whether I saw my friend or not!” Wang Ziqiu’s story is seen as a perfect example of demeanors in Wei and Jin Dynasties of China. At that time, Buddhism had already spread from India to China, and was well received by the upper classes. The leisurely, carefree lifestyle of intellectuals of Wei and Jing Dynasties (like Wang Ziqiu) possibly had their roots in Indian culture!

我觉得,这世上真有一种“印度时间”。印度与北京的时差为两个半小时,现代科技十分发达,飞机一落地,手机已自动调整为印度时间,但我说的“印度时间”,和时钟没有关系,是一种内在于精神气质的心态。早年间,为了争分夺秒搞建设,我们一度在暑期推行过“夏令时间”,也就是把手表拨快一个小时。其实,手表可以任人拨弄,是因为手表上的时间,不过是人类为生命节奏立法的努力罢了,但随意拨弄的结果,有时反而限制了人性在天地间的自由挥洒,给人生带来不少烦恼。而生活在“印度时间”里的人们,少了一份限制,多了一份安宁。他们的物质生活或许还不富足,却每天在精神世界里体验着世代相传的“慢”幸福。我以为,这种状态在哲理层面的发展,大概就是庄周喜谈的“坐忘”。

I believe there is something called “Indian Time” in the world. There is a time difference of 2 hours and a half between India and China. Shortly after the plane landed safely in India, the configuration of my cell phone was shifted to local time automatically. But what I refer to as “Indian Time” has nothing to do with the clock; instead, it is a mindset internalized as a spiritual temperament. In early years, we used to adopt “Daylight Saving Time” in the summer, in order to save every minute for industrial constructions. It was pretty simple – to set forward our watches for one hour. As a matter of fact, we can set forward (or in the opposite direction) our watches at our own will, because the time showed on watch is people’s efforts to standardize the rhythms of their lives. By changing the already-set rhythms of lives, they would often put shackles on human nature, which is supposed to travel freely between earth and heaven. And that’s the primary source of our troubles. Living at the pace of “Indian Time”, people may find less restrictions and more inner peace in their lives. Although their lives are by no means “rich and abundant” judging by the material level, they are so immersed in the joys of going slow in their spiritual lives – a tradition dating several generations. I believe that their conditions can be analogized philosophically as “meditation and oblivion” – an ideal of Zhuang Zhou*. (Editor’s Note: Zhuang Zhou was  a Chinese thinker in the Warring States Period a few centuries BC).

到过中国多次的卡秀儿不止一次对我们说,他很羡慕中国,因为政治和文化等各种原因,印度无法像中国模式这般快速发展。而在我想来,印度固然要发展,但最好不要破坏“印度时间”给人们带来的那份满足,不要让牛儿失去家园,不要让松鼠充满警惕,不要让人心失去秩序,更不要让孩子失去淳朴、礼节和尊严。我知道,经济的繁荣与生活的幸福,如水和舟之关系,可载之亦可覆之,而取舍予夺之道,又非我等俗夫所能参透。更要命的是,我不会印度语,耗费二十年青春所学的英语又早已完璧归赵,即便有所参悟,也无法告诉卡秀儿了。没奈何,只好做出很印度的样子,似是而非地摆了摆头。

Cahill has been to China more than once, and he envies the progress made by China. For a series of political and cultural reasons, India is unlikely to achieve an equally fast development as China. In my opinion, India is working hard for her own development. Indeed, but the satisfaction brought by “Indian Time” must not be sacrificed. Let the cattle never be homeless, the squirrels fully alert, people’s hearts out of order and children with loss of purity, ritual and dignity. I understand that a prosperous national economy and people’s happiness in life are highly complementary, much like the relationship between boat and water. (But, as the Chinese proverb goes: “The water that bears the boat is the same that swallows it up”.) However, ordinary people like me cannot figure out a perfect balance between them. To make things worse, Hindi is totally Greek to me, and I’ve forgotten every single word of English, which I learned in my twenties as a young man. Even if I had something to share at the moment, I couldn’t speak a word with all efforts. In desperation, I could only nod my head with a plausible air – a very “Indian way” to do so.

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