Journal : Global Times (Chinese) Date : Author : NA Page No. : NA
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“1104让印度兴奋

India excited over launching 104 satellites on a single rocket

本报驻印度、美国、新加坡特派特约记者     邹松   李勇   辛斌 。本报记者   杨檬。魏辉

By Zou Song, Li Yong and Xin Bin, special correspondents of Global Times in India, U.S. and Singapore; and Yang Meng and Wei Hui, staff reporters of Global Times

“印度成功创造历史”“印度迎来荣耀时刻”……15日,随着印度航天部门成功利用一枚运载火箭将7个国家的104颗卫星送入太空,一股强烈的自豪感在该国舆论场蔓延。此前的纪录是俄罗斯2014年创造的“一箭37星”,如今印度“开挂”般地一下子将纪录提高了近两倍。印度总统慕克吉表示:“这一天将成为我国航天计划史上的里程碑。”总理莫迪说,这次非凡壮举是国家的又一骄傲时刻。在印度社交媒体上,“世界纪录”成了昨天的流行词。包括中国在内的多个国家早就掌握了“一箭多星”技术,但并未像印度这样在“多”上追求极致。印度这项“突破”含金量究竟多高呢?分析人士注意到,印度之所以能够创造这个纪录,很大程度上是因为这次发射的卫星大部分都很小,104颗加在一起还不到1.4吨,去年中国发射的天宫二号为8.6吨(当然两者轨道高度有所不同)。“印度太空技术绝不是亚洲最强的”,英国《金融时报》引述专家的话称,“人们经常谈论亚洲太空竞赛,但是如果你仔细看,中国的太空项目要强许多”。

“India finally made history”, “India embraces a moment of honor”… On February 15th, the Indian Space Research Organisation (hereinafter referred to as ISRO) succeeded in carrying 104 satellites with one carrier rocket. A strong sense of national pride soon mounted in the public opinion field of India. Russia had held the record earlier, for the most satellite launches in a single mission and the number was 37, which was broke by India with this achievement. As a matter of fact, apart from outdoing its own previous achievements, has also moved ahead of Russia by a long margin. President of India Pranab Mukherjee said: “The nation is proud of this significant achievement.” And Prime Minister Modi praised that as “a proud moment of the nation”. Soon after, “world record” became a buzz word of the social media in India. As a matter of fact, a number of countries – including China – have already a good command of the technology of sending multiple satellites with one single carrier rocket, and none of them attach too much importance to the number of satellites. What is the significance of India’s “breakthrough” this time? The analysts observed the fact that India managed to set the new record thanks to the fact that the satellites launched by the carrier rocket are relatively smaller in size, as all 104 of them combine a total weight of less than 1.4 tons. By comparison, the Tiangong 2 launched by China last year weighed 8.6 tons, although there are differences with the orbit altitudes of them. “India is not yet the strongest one in Asia with regard to aerospace technology,” the Financial Times (U.K.) thus quotes from a space scientist, “people often speak of the space race in Asia, but it only takes careful observations to discover that China has evidently stronger space program.”

印度的荣耀时刻

The “Moment of Honor” for India

当地时间15日上午9时28分,印度空间研究组织(ISRO)的一枚极轨卫星运载火箭(PLSV-C37)在位于该国东南部安得拉邦斯里赫里戈达岛的航天中心点火升空。《印度时报》称,火箭搭载104颗卫星,这是PSLV型火箭的第39次飞行。17分钟后,火箭开始将卫星一颗颗送入轨道,释放过程持续大约11分钟。在ISRO负责人宣布所有卫星发射成功后,航天中心发射现场爆发出一阵欢呼声。

India scripted a new chapter in the history of space exploration on Wednesday with the successful launch of a record 104 satellites+ by Isro’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in a single mission. According to the report of The Times of India, PSLV-C37 carrying the 104 satellites lifted off from the first launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota at 9.28am. According to the report of The Times of India, it was the 39th flight of PSLV-C37. 17 minutes later, the rocket started to put the satellite into their own orbit in succession, and the entire process of releasing lasted for around 11 minutes. When the success of the project was announced by the director of ISRO, the space center was soon submerged by huge applauses and tides of cheers.

“世界纪录的创造者——印度空间研究组织,今天印度为你骄傲。”印度《金融快报》网站第一时间发表评论说,印度打破自己之前的纪录,而且超出俄罗斯一大截,他们的纪录才是“一箭37星”,美国是“一箭29星”。新德里电视台称,印度创造了历史,在这次被称为印度航天计划非凡之举的发射行动中,PSLV-C37火箭是耀眼的明星。火箭把所有卫星带入太空,时速2.7万公里,为普通航班时速的40倍。这是2015年6月ISRO一次发射23颗卫星后的又一次成功。

“World record set with PSLV launch of 104 satellites: ISRO, India is proud of you.” The official website of The Financial Express (India) published an editorial immediately after the successful launching, saying that India, apart from outdoing its own previous achievements, has also moved ahead of Russia by a long margin. Russia had held the record earlier, for the most satellite launches in a single mission and the number was 37. Russia had achieved that feat in 2014. This record is followed by the US space agency NASA, which has launched 29 satellites in a single mission. The report of NDTV says that India finally makes history with this achievement. In this launching project defined as “the extraordinary move of India’s space project” the PSLV-C37 rocket is undoubtedly the bright star among all. The rocket carried all satellites into the space with a speed of 27 thousand kilometers per hour, which is 40 times the speed of regular airplane flight. It is another marvelous achievement following the successful launch of 23 satellites by ISRO in June of 2015.

印度领导人也纷纷表示祝贺。总统慕克吉说:“这一天将成为我国航天计划历史上的里程碑。我国为这一重大成就感到自豪,这再次展现了印度日益提升的航天能力。”总理莫迪更是连发多条推特,盛赞这是“印度的民族骄傲”。他说:“这次非凡壮举是我国航天科学界和国家的又一骄傲时刻。印度向我们的科学家致敬。”

The political leaders of India sent their congratulations in succession. President of India Pranab Mukherjee said: “This day shall go down as a landmark in the history of our space programme. The nation is proud of this significant achievement, which has demonstrated, yet again, India’s increasing space capabilities.” Prime Minister Modi even tweeted for multiple times, praising ISRO’s feat as “a proud moment of the nation”. He tweeted: “This remarkable feat by ISRO is yet another proud moment for our space scientific community and the nation. India salutes our scientists.”

很快,“世界纪录”成了印度推特上最热的流行词。印度综合门户网站“印度第一站”称,15日是印度创造历史的日子,从总理到平民百姓,都为印度空间研究组织的里程碑事件感到兴奋。沉浸在“印度荣耀时刻”的同时,有网民还不忘借机挖苦老对手巴基斯坦,称印度和巴基斯坦同时独立,但如今一个成功将创纪录的卫星送入太空,“另一个将恐怖主义分子送往全球”。

Soon after, “world record” became a buzz word among the twitter users in India. Oneindia.com, an online portal of India, claims that February 15th marks “a historic day” for all Indians, as they – from the Prime Minister himself to the ordinary people – are celebrating the monumental achievement of ISRO. Bathed in the “moment of honor” in the history of India, the Indian netizens didn’t forget to ridicule Pakistan, India’s archenemy. They claimed that the two countries gained independence at almost the same time of last century, but one of them has already succeeded in launching a satellite into the space, while the other “only send terrorists across the globe”.

印度发射的这104颗卫星中,包括一颗地球观测卫星Cartosat-2,重700多公斤,这也是其中唯一一颗较大型的卫星。其余的多是很小的“纳米卫星”,总计重664公斤,最小只有1.1公斤。96颗卫星来自美国客户,还有的来自以色列、哈萨克斯坦、荷兰、瑞士和阿联酋。英国广播公司称,Carto⁃sat-2是具备拍摄高清照片功能的观测卫星,将用于监视巴基斯坦和中国。《纽约时报》称,一名右翼活动分子在推特上说:“来看看,中国、巴基斯坦,这就是我们的力量。”

The 104 satellites launched into the space by India this time include Cartosat-2, an earth observation satellite weighing over 700 kilograms, which is the only relatively large satellite among all 104 of them. The rest are mostly “Nanometer Satellites” of relatively smaller size, and they altogether weigh 664 kilograms, with the smallest one weighing only 1.1 kilograms. 96 of the satellites are for the clients of U.S., and other clients are from Israel, Kazakhstan, Netherland, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates. According to the report of BBC, Carto⁃sat-2 is an earth observation satellite with the function of taking photos of high definition, which will be used to monitor the situations in Pakistan and China. The report of New York Times quotes the twitter of a right winger in India, who claimed “come and see, China and Pakistan, such is our strength”.

印度《商业标准报》称,ISRO的新纪录使得印度成为全球卫星发射一站式服务商,有望为印度带来全球商机。美国空间产业研究机构SpaceWorks预计,今后5年,大小从一个鞋盒到24英寸电视机、重量在1公斤到50公斤之间的类似卫星,需要发射3000多颗。这些卫星将被用于天气跟踪、海上导航以及为偏远地区提供高速上网服务等。印度《金融快报》称,卫星数量本身也许不能称为伟大的科技进展,但其中的创新肯定是工程奇迹。火箭可以搭载大量卫星,但真正的挑战不是如何将卫星装进去,而是如何将它们依次释放。航天中心主任斯万说,这是他们遇到的最艰难任务,“我们必须确保它们不会相撞”。

The report of Business Standard (India) says that with ISRO’s historic feat of hurling 104 satellites in one go, a record by any space agency, is set to open up a global opportunity and make India a one-stop shop for building and hurling micro satellites. Over the next five years, over 3,000 such satellites with sizes varying from a small shoebox to a 24-inch television set and weighing one kg to 50 kg are expected to be built and launched by various players, according to SpaceWorks Inc, a US space industry researcher. These satellites will also be used for the track of weather condition, navigation on the sea as well as high-speed internet connections in the remote areas, etc. According to the report of The Financial Express (India), space scientists note that the number of satellites launched by a rocket in one mission is not comparable to scoring runs in cricket. But what is required is a lot of engineering innovations for stacking the tiny satellites in the available space and ejecting them sequentially in the desired orbits without colliding with each other, according to K. Sivan, Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC).

“ISRO的创新纪录:从牛车到火星的飞跃”,《印度斯坦时报》15日称,1981年,印度太空科学家还在想尽办法,为新卫星寻找不采用金属材料的运输平台。最后,他们把亮闪闪的新卫星装在老旧的牛车上推了出来,让世界看呆。30年后,印度科学家成功实现一次发射100多颗卫星的任务。从一定意义上说,这反映出印度持续不断改进和循环利用有限设备、努力降低成本、应对科技局限性的惊人历程。对许多人来说,尽管印度工业落后,制造业表现乏力,但周三的成功发射再次凸显印度太空技术的实力。

“ISRO’s record of innovation: Bullock cart to launching 180 foreign satellites” – such is the title of the report of Hindustan Times on April 15th. In 1981, when India’s space scientists grappled with the challenge of finding a metal-free transportable platform for its new satellite, they turned to an improbable frugal innovation. As the world watched amazed, Indian scientists wheeled out their gleaming, new satellite on a creaking, old bullock cart. More than three decades on, as Indian scientists successfully launched more than 100 nano satellites on a single rocket, creating what they said was a record, it was still, in part, the same amazing story of endless tweaking and recycling of delicate equipment to keep costs down and tide over technology constraints. To many, Wednesday’s triumph once again underlined the credibility of India’s space technology, despite the country’s antiquated industrial processes and manufacturing record, and the brilliance of its poorly paid scientists whose only reward, perhaps, is the collective national pride their work generates.

意义到底有多大?

What is the significance of India’s recent achievement?

美国早在上世纪60年代就最早掌握了“一箭多星”技术。2015年,中国曾用长征六号火箭一次送20颗卫星上天,创下当时的亚洲航天纪录。现在印度的“一箭104星”意义到底有多大?

US space agency NASA succeeded in launching multiple satellites in a single mission in as early as 1960s. In 2015, China managed to launch a total of 2o satellites into the space with CZ-6 (Long March 6), making the record in the aerospace history among all Asian countries. And now, what is the significance of ISRO’s achievement of sending 104 satellites with one rocket this times?

中国空间技术研究院研究员庞之浩15日接受《环球时报》记者采访时表示,这次发射产生了巨大政治影响。这次成功,为小卫星发射技术起到推动作用,一箭多星预计会越来越普遍。因为发射成本越低,微小卫星的应用成本就越低。这也将给印度带来可观的商业利益。在技术上这次印度也有一定进步,解决了发射大量卫星的一些技术,涉及分配器接口、时序控制等。但这次发射算不上重大航天突破,因为印度火箭的太阳同步轨道运载能力只有1.75吨,而中国的长征-4C达到3吨多。而且,印度这次发射对轨道高度相对要求并不高,这些卫星的轨道高度基本都在距地面500公里左右。

Pang Zhihao, a research fellow of China Academy of Space Technology, said in an interview with the reporter of Global Times that ISRO’s achievement arouses huge political impact at the moment. The success would surely bring a step forward the launching technology of small satellite, and people will see more cases of launching multiple satellites into the space with one rocket in the near future. The lower the costs of launching, the lower the application costs of microsatellites. As a result, India is given substantial commercial benefits. Technologically, India has also achieved evident progress by solving a series of problems of launching multiple satellites, which are related to the distributor interface and sequential control, etc. The successful launch by ISRO is by no means a giant breakthrough in the aerospace sense, as the carrying capacity of the sun-synchronous orbit of the Indian rocket is no more than 1.75 tons, while that of CZ-4C of China exceeds 3 tons. Besides, the required orbital altitude of India’s launch is no so high, as the orbital altitude of these satellites are around 500 kilometers from the ground.

庞之浩说,如果对火箭运载能力和轨道高度要求更高,则需要采取“先进上面级”技术——别称太空摆渡车。就像机场的摆渡车,会把乘客按照目的地送到不同的飞机舱门旁边。这种技术中国已掌握,去年远征一号和二号卫星已经采用。

Pang Zhihao said that if the standards of the carrying capacity and the orbital altitude are raised enormously for the rocket launching, they’ll have to resort to the technology of “advanced upper stage”, a.k.a. the space shuttle. That’s quite like the shuttle buses at the airport, which carry the passengers to the cabin doors of different airplanes in accordance with their respective destinations. At the current stage, China has already a good command of such technology, and has already applied it in Yuanzheng 1 and Yuanzheng 2 last year.

一位参与过中国长征系列火箭设计的航天专家对《环球时报》记者说,这次印度发射“一箭104星”,更多是一种形式上的东西,并不真正反映水平有多高。发射卫星的关键是有没有控制能力、重量是多少。发射小卫星可以做到很简单,几公斤一个,就相当于一个无线电发射机。如果是质量很小且不是多轨道的话,那就像打子弹一样,发出去没太大难度。但若变成不同轨道,多个卫星重量达到两三百公斤,那就厉害了。“中国的运载火箭水平比印度要高很多,从控制能力和可行性方面看,目前中国只落后于美俄。”

One top space scientist, who was involved in the design process of Long March rocket family, told the reporter of Global Times that it is merely something “formal” that India succeeded in launching 104 satellites with one rocket at a single time. That is to say, there is no concrete proof that India has achieved much progress technologically. The key factors of launching satellites include the control capacity and the weight, etc. Launching microsatellites is relatively simple, as each of them weigh no more than a few kilograms, and it’s actually no different from a radio transmitter. If the weight of the satellite to be launched is not so enormous, and that there is only one orbit, it is not a difficult task at all. However, if there are more than one orbit, and each of the satellites weigh 200 to 300 kilograms, that task would be something marvelous if it is finally accomplished. “Speaking of carrier rocket, China is far more advanced than India in the technological sense. Judging by the control capacity and the feasibility of the technology, China is now only behind U.S. and Russia.”

无论如何,印度航天技术的进步有目共睹。2014年,印度的“曼加里安”号火星探测器成功进入火星轨道,印度成为第一个将探测器送入火星轨道的亚洲国家。印度政府对于航天技术的重视也是显而易见。去年11月,莫迪政府决定废除最大面值的旧纸币,代之以新的2000卢比钞票,新纸币的正面是印度圣雄甘地,背面便是“曼加里安”号火星探测器。

No matter what, India has achieved tremendous progress with regard to its aerospace technology. In 2014, India successfully put a satellite named “the Mangalyaan robotic probe” into orbit around Mars, becoming the first Asian country to put a robotic probe into the orbit around Mars. The Indian government also lays great emphasis on the progress of aerospace technology, which is easily seen by all. In November of 2016, the Modi government declared a huge portion of the country’s currency null and void. Instead, they replaced the old ones with a new banknote of 2000 Indian rupees. On the positive side of the banknote is the image of Mahatma Gandhi, and on the back is the Mangalyaan robotic probe.

“太空奥德赛:印度计划进军金星和火星”,《印度时报》13日称,印度计划不久后首次进军金星,并重访红色星球火星。印度政府在电子预算文件中透露了这两个大胆的星际计划。火星任务初步定于2021年至2022年,现有计划很可能是将一个遥控设备发射到火星表面。印度2013年第一颗火星探测器完全自主研发,此次法国希望与印度共同合作研制火星探测器。在2017年的预算中,印度航天部门资金已增加23%。在航天科学部分,预算规定用于“火星轨道探测器二代任务和金星任务”。文章称,新的火星任务可能是做良好的科学研究,因为上一次时带有民族主义倾向——击败中国的火星计划。

“Space odyssey: India plans trips to Venus, Mars.” The report of The Times of India on February 13th says that India plans to go to Venus for the first time and revisit the red planet, Mars, very soon. A formal acknowledgement by the government of these two bold inter-planetary sojourns is in the electronic budget documents. The mission to Mars is tentatively slated for 2021-22 and as per existing plans it may well involve putting a robot on the Martian surface. While India’s first Mars mission in 2013 was purely indigenous, the French space agency wants to collaborate in making the Mars rover. In the 2017 budget, funds for the department of space have been increased by 23%.Under the space sciences section, the budget mentions provisions “for Mars Orbiter Mission II and mission to Venus”. The report also adds that this Mars mission is likely to be all about doing good science since the first one had a nationalistic streak in it in trying to beat China to the orbit of Mars, which the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) did magnificently.

外媒炒作新太空竞赛

The foreign media are eyeing on the “new space race”

“中印竞争”正是印度及西方媒体喜欢炒作的一点。CNN15日题为“随着亚洲太空竞赛升温,印度着眼于卫星发射创纪录”的文章称,中印这两个争夺地区霸主地位的“对手”正在大力加速提升各自的太空实力,今后几年双方的竞争将更加激烈。

“China-India rivalry” is a spotlight that the Indian and western media love to hype. The report of CNN on February 15th, entitled “India in record satellite launch as Asia’s space race heats up”, says that India, China and Japan have all outlined bold space exploration plans for 2017 and beyond. The increasing competition for space-related power and prestige in Asia has echoes of the Cold War space race of the mid-20th century.

“德国之声”称,在美国和俄罗斯航天计划受到延缓之际,中国和印度两个世界人口最多的亚洲巨人加快了向太空迈进的步伐,并取得长足发展。中国和印度使得顶尖航天俱乐部进一步扩大,在太空探索方面取得巨大进步。澳大利亚航天专家莫里斯·琼斯表示,虽然印度也取得巨大的进步,但还明显落后于中国。虽然在卫星技术上可以和中国比肩,但是在火箭技术以及载人航天方面却进展不大。

According to the report of Deutsche Welle, with U.S. and Russia slowing down their paces in developing their own space programs, China and India – the two most populated countries in the world and Asia’s new giants – are marching towards the space with even faster paces and have already achieved tremendous success. With the rises of China and India, the top tier of the “space club” is expanded, and huge progress is achieved in the endeavor of exploring the space. Morris Jones, an Australian space scientist, believed that India is still far behind China with regard to aerospace technology, although much progress is achieved recently. India is now neck and neck with China in the field of satellite technology, but there is no evident advancement in the fields of rocket technology and manned space flight.

英国《金融时报》15日称,印度对抢先中国将探测器送入火星轨道尤其感到骄傲,但专家认为,印度太空技术绝不是亚洲最强的。印度国防研究与分析所资深研究员艾杰·拉勒说,中国的太空项目要强许多,“更大,更有雄心,中国是和美国在竞争”。该报此前一篇文章详细对比了“亚洲的新太空竞赛”。报道称,中国在载人航天领域占据先机,印度在这方面难同中国竞争,而是采取现实态度致力于高性能卫星和太空探测器技术。今年上半年,中国将发射天舟一号货运飞船,这将成为中国向空间站运送补给的重要一步。此外,中国也有自己的月球和火星探测计划。文章认为,太空项目在提高国家声誉的同时,也促进了中国国内产业的发展,比如中国的北斗导航系统已经为本国317个城市提供服务,基于北斗的相关商业产值到2020年预计可达4000亿元人民币。

The report of Financial Times (U.K.) on February 15th claims that although the Indian people feel extremely proud of the achievement of putting the robotic probe into the orbit of Mars ahead of China, India is not yet the strongest one in Asia with regard to aerospace technology. According to a senior research fellow of IDSA (Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses) of India, China has far more advanced space programs than India, “larger, and more ambitious”. Actually, China is trying to compete with U.S. According to a prior report of the same newspaper, rather than making an attempt to compete in manned area flight — a discipline during which China has a head begin — it could be extra sensible for India to give attention to higher-performance satellites and probes. In the primary half of this 12 months, China is to launch its Tianzhou-1 cargo spacecraft — a stepping stone to transporting provides to the area station. Besides, the federal government revealed an area growth plan that includes missions to the moon and Mars. According to the article, BeiDou is already offering location info companies in 317 Chinese cities in China, and associated companies are anticipated to be value a complete of Rmb400bn ($58.1bn) by 2020. Plus, providing an alternative choice to the US-led GPS might strengthen China’s worldwide affect.

前述不便透露姓名的航天专家对《环球时报》记者说,中国已是航天大国,并没有把印度当成对手,也不会与印度进行所谓太空竞赛。我们是按照自己的目标,一步步推进。▲

The above-mentioned space scientist, who insisted that his name not be revealed, told the reporter of Global Times that China is already a superpower in the realm of aerospace, and India cannot compete with China at the current stage. Therefore, there is no so-called “space race” between China and India. China is marching forward following her own paces to reach the target already set. ▲

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