This page features terms (and names) useful in translations collated from the daily newspapers and journals covered by the project in the main (but also others).

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

A


 

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B

 

 

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C


Chinese characteristics: 中国特色 (zhong guo te se)


Cadre evaluation system: 官员考核体系 (guan yuan kao he tixi).


(Low) carbon economy: (低) 碳经济 (di tan jing ji)


Collective transgression of social norms by Chinese entrepreneurs: 中国企业家的集体出轨行为 (zhong guo qi ye jia de ji ti chu gui xing wei)


CTBT全面禁止核试验条约(Quánmiàn jìnzhǐ hé shìyàn tiáoyuē)


 

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D

Double 11: November 11, Chinese Valentine’s Day


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E

Enterprise/Entrepreneurs:  企业 (qi ye)/企业家 (qi ye jia),  商人 (shang ren) . See also Initiators ( 发起人 fa qi ren )


Ecological civilization: 生态文明 ((sheng tai wen ming)


Environment: Clean energy (hydro, wind, nuclear and natural gas power) accounted for 16.9% of total energy consumption in 2014 (National Bureau of Statistics Report featured in People’s Daily (English))


Environmental protection law: 新环保法 (xin huan bao fa)


Endogenous development: 内生式发展 (nei sheng shi fa zhan)


Exclusive(ness): 排他性 (páitāxìng)

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F


Falun Gong: A Chinese Buddhist belief system stressing the divine and cultivation of traditional values such as truthfulness, compassion and tolerance that came in the news in the early 90s for the large following it attracted in China publicly. Subsequently, it fell out of favour with the authorities and was banned in 1999 during the Presidency of Mr. Jiang Zemin.


Fosun International: China’s biggest private conglomerate group with businesses in the pharmaceuticals,real estate, mining, steel and retail sectors. It owns CLub Med and other businesses in Europe and the US. Its Chairman, Guo Guangchang, is known as the “Warrren Buffet” of China.


 

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G


Global Times: is owned by People’s Daily (the official organ of the Communist Party of China – CPC) but profiles itself as a semi-official newspaper. Founded in 1993 as a weekly, it is the leading daily now for over a decade after runaway success.

At over 2.5 million, its circulation is China’s third largest, after the two leading official newspapers, People’s Daily and PLA Daily. (The latter are, however, subscribed to by all units of the PLA and not necessarily individuals, as is the case with Global Times.) That commercial success was built on the strength of unhesitating appeal to strident nationalism, in the name of being ‘market driven’ (and therefore, ostensibly, being compelled to cater to public opinion).

Its English language version appeared in April 2009. The English edition is, however, not a translated version of the Chinese version; not at all. It is aimed at the expatriate community in China and foreign audiences abroad. As such, its content is tailored to suit the target audience — it includes some selections from the Chinese language original but with a liberal dose of independent pieces that the reader of the ChInese version has nio inkling of and which are written with an eye on foreign audiences. This duality is well captured in the description of the two versions of Global Times at the reputed Australian China research website, “The China Story” (www.TheChinaStory.org): the Chinese version reports on a ‘multipolar world’ (duoyuande shijie 多元的世界), while the English edition tells stories of a ‘complicated China’ (fuzade Zhongguo 复杂的中国). And that “the paper is unabashedly nationalistic, defensive of Communist Party rule and occasionally egregiously jingoistic”.

Though not official, it is officially blessed – by its very origins and in a host of other ways. Global Times can be said to serve the purpose of allowing the official establishment to have its cake and eat it too – i.e. reap the advantages of a free press in a controlled media environment, by using it as an instrument for signalling tough messages to interlocutors, without the CPC having to take responsibility for them.

The Guangming Daily: is the Communist Party’s paper for the intelligentsia. Its official website, GMW.cn, describes itself as the “spiritual homeland on the Internet for intellectuals” and the “authoritative website on ideology, theory and culture”. The newspaper’s origins go back to the period of the Chinese national liberation struggle (and to its association with kindred publications in S E Asia (like Xin Qiao of Malaysia and now Ming Pao of Hong Kong).


GCL (Golden Concord Holdings Ltd.): Name of Chinese energy giant which has signed a strategic collaboration agreement with the Indian firm, Adani Enterprises, for joint ventures in clean energy, petroleum logistics and  photo-voltaic sectors.


Go Global (Zou chu qu): Short name of 2001 policy recommendation to Chinese firms to strive for an outward orientation (and invest abroad) — described as Version 3.0 of Chinese approach to globalisation (Version 1.0 being the 1978/9 Reform and Opening Up policy and Version 2.0 China’s accession to the WTO in 2001 unmindful of the various conditionalities imposed on it by the USA and others in the entry negotiation process) —  on par, almost, with the 2013 OBOR strategic orientation.


Ghost children: Term used to describe children born outside the plan” under the ‘one-child policy’, in addition to the single child registered officially. Gained notoriety because of the denial of State subsidised education, health etc (citizen) benefits to such children due to their non-existence as citizens on paper (in practice, in contravention of rules which only provid efor  afine, not denial of citizenship rights). Said to number as many as 6.5 million (according to TOI 2/11/2015 based on a NYTS article citing a researcher Wan Haiyuan)

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H


Harmonious society: 和谐社会  (he xie she hui)


He ping jue qi: peaceful rise


 

Hinduism: 印度教 (Yìn dù jiào)


Hukou system: Refers to the system of mandatory registration of all nationals in their place of birth in vogue in China to prevent free  migration across the country.  Relaxed in recent decades, post-reform 1978, it resulted in a severe adverse impact on the upbringing of ‘migrant children; because of their parents not being entitled to access to State subsidised education facilities and health care outside their traditional place of residence.

Calls for reform of the ‘hukou system’ are made regularly, in the National People’s Congress, media etc. but not much advance has been made on the ground.


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I


ICBC (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China): The only Chinese-funded bank with a branch in India. Opened its first Indian branch in Mumbai in 2011.


Implicit rules: 潜规则 (qian gui ze)


Immediate:  立即 (li ji) as in immediate and unconditional (立即无条件)


Initiators:  发起人 (fa qi ren ) See also entrepreneurs 企业家 (qi ye jia)


Innovation: 创新 (Chuàng xīn)

Innovation driven development strategy: 创新驱动发展战略 (Chuàng xīn qū dòng fā zhǎn zhàn lüè)


International industrial capacity cooperation: 产能合作 (Chǎn néng hé zuò) — China’s new diplomatic buzzword concept put forward by Premier Li Keqiang at the Dalian World Economic Forum in September (Phoenix News September 10, 2015)  Essential aspect of the OBOR strategy and being pursued actively in the US (Sino-American industrial capacity cooperation) as well, where more and more Chinese SOEs can be expected to establish subsidiaries, manufacturing bases and R&D centers in the USA.  With Europe too — see “Triple-win” under ‘T’.


“Invisible hand” (of the market)/”visible hand” (of government): “看不见的手”/”看得见的手” (“Kàn bù jiàn de shǒu”/”kàn dé jiàn de shǒu”)


 

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J


Jiefang Daily: A daily newspaper published from Shanghai, the leading commercial city in China. It has been included to provide a slightly broader coverage than Beijing based newspapers only.


Jiemian: A website run by the publishers of Jiefang Daily (Shanghai Newspaper Press Group). It is  more inclined towards economic, financial and business news for audiences in the business sector and the intelligentsia.


Jingdong: A leading Chinese e-commerce firm

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K


PLEASE TYPE ONLY HERE FOR Glossary of K

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L


Left-behind children: Term in vogue in China to describe children of migrant workers left behind in the villages with relatives (usually grand-parents) or to fend for themselves, when both parents migrate to urban areas in search of a  livelihood.  Numbers are as many as 61 million, according to a recent (July 2015) White Paper that was brought out in the wake of four such children having committed suicide..

The related terms “migrant children”  and “ghost kids” refer to children who accompany their parent(s) to urban areas but are still a cause for national concern because of the adverse impact of the ‘hukou’ system. (See under H) and (additional) children born “poutside the plan” under the one child policy (See under G)


LAC (Line of Actual Control): 实际控制线 (Shí jì kòng zhì xi àn)

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M

Made in China 2025: Strategy to improve its high end industrial manufacturing sector (Xinhua May 19, 2015). External and Internal components: externally, CHina has accelerated its pace of ODI to gain access to foreign markets and advanced technologies.

Migrant Children: The term refers to children who accompany their migrant worker parent(s) to urban areas but are still a cause for national concern (of China “risking raising a lost generation”) because of the adverse impact of the ‘hukou’ system. (See under H) Deprived of access to subsidised schooling and health care, they are “forced to go to make-shift, non-Government and yet expensive, schools which often lack adequate teaching and focus mainly on profits”.

One out of four children in urban areas is a migrant child,according a 2010 UNICEF Survey, said to have risen to one out of three by 2013 — a total of 35.8 million.


Multipolar world: 多元的世界  (duo yuan de shi jie)


 

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N


 New type of international relations: 新型国际关系(Xīn xíng guó jì guān xì)


New type of great power relations: 新型大国关系(Xīn xíng dà guó guān xì)


NPT:  不扩散核武器条约(bu kuo san he wu qi tiao yue)


Nuclear safety翻译为核安全 (Fānyì wèi hé ānquan)

Nuclear security翻译为核安保 (Fānyì wèi hé ānbǎo) taken from 安全保护 which literally means “to maintain security”. Still use them interchangeably (as e.g. President Xi Jinping’s speech at the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague.)


 

Nuclear Weapon State: : 核武器国家 (he wu qi guo jia) further categorised as legitimate (lawful) — 合法 (hefa) and quasi — zhun he guojia (准核国家)


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O

 


OnePlus: Chinese smart phone manufacturer that has tied up with Taiwanese firm Foxconn to manufacture smart phones in Andhra Pradesh at Foxconn’s Rising Stars factory in Sri City. The first batch of handsets produced in India is expected to be available commercially before the end of 2015. (TOI)


ODI (Outbound direct (non-financial) investment):  Chinese term equivalent to FDI


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P

Peaceful rise: He ping jue qi (和平崛起)

Peaceful development: He ping fa jan (和平发展)


People’s Daily: The official organ of the Communist Party of China. ​Its contents are​ therefore​ also authoritative​ – its editorials​, for example,​ can safely be taken to represent the ​views of the top leadership.

The People’s Daily runs a multi-media conglomerate of various news sites, portals and platforms offering diverse services through its digital arm, People.cn, founded in 1997. The latter iclude the Qiangguo Forum (Strong China Forum), the first forum on politics built by Chinese Internet media, which is claimed to be “the most renowned forum in Chinese language”. People.cn is a company listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange, with three subsidiaries (including Huanqiu, the company that publishes the Global Times) and offices all over China and abroad.


People’s Liberation Army Daily: Mouthpiece of the Chinese military (PLA is the term used in China for the Army, as well as for the other wings — Navy, Air Force and Strategic Forces – i.e. ‘military’ in other words.) It addresses the several million strong constituency of serving and retired soldiers, and can safely be surmised to be mandatory reading for them.

Unlike much of the rest of the official media, which have been buffeted by winds of change as a result of commercial and other pressures due to budget cuts under the strategic re-orientation of ‘reform and opening up’ of the economy over the last several decades, the PLA Daily continues to be brought out, largely as before — through budgetary support and mandatory subscriptions by all PLA units.


Private-donor foundation:  非公墓基金会 ((fei gong mu ji jin hui) Alashan SEE, set up in 2008, was the first  organisation of its kind (and the only one at that time).


Psychological knot: 心结 (xin jie )  Claimed to have been dissolved.in light of President Xi Jinping’s assurances during his recent visit to the USA that China will not challenge the existing international order.between China and the U.S.

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Q


Qin, cheng, hui and rong (秦(亲密),郑(一本正经),慧(利益)和荣(包容)): qin (closeness), cheng (earnestness),  hui (benefit) and rong (inclusiveness) that are said to form the basis of China’s peripheral diplomacy.

Qiku Internet: Name of Chinese firm that entered the smart phone space in India in 2014.


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R

Rule of law:  法制 (fa zhi)


Reform and opening up: 改革开放 (gai ge kai fang)


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S

Self-made: 白手起家 ((bai shou qi jia)


Smart cities: 智慧城市 zhi hui cheng shi)


Scientific outlook on development: 科学发展观  (ke xue fa zhan guan)


T

Tencent: Name of one of the three (actually four) Chinese IT giants — BAXT —  which has invested in Indian start ups (like the medical services firm, Practo) and other firms in a big way.


Times of India: 印度时报 (yin du shi bao)


The Statesman: 政治家报 (Zhèngzhì jiā bào)


Triple-win: Idea put forward by Premier Li Keqiang at the Sino-European Business Summit at Brussels in June 2015 — industrial capacity cooperation between China and Europe to provide developed countries with market opportunities for their advanced technology, developing countries with access to affordable high-end manufacturing equipment and experience and China the opportunity to shift from low-end manufacturing to high-end one, serving as a bridge between developed and developing countries in infra-structure development.

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U


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V

Vivo: Name of China’s fourth largest mobile phone manufacturer (after Xiaomi, Huawei and Apple, ahead of Samsung) that entered the Indian market in December last and is due to  commence assembly in India in FY 15-16.


Village Self-governance: 村规民约 (cun gui min yue) 


Village Party (CCP) Branch Secretary:  村党支部书记 (cun dang zhi bu shu ji)


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W

Water — South North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP): A 2002 project to transfer 45 bn cu m of water from the Yangtse basin to the Yellow river basin through 3000 meter long tunnels and canals at an estimated cost of $ 80 bn and relocation of some 330,000 people that is still underway. Seeks to address the asymmetry of 2/3 of China’s wate rbeing in the South but nearly 65% of agricultural land and half the people in the North.


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X

Xinhua is the official Chinese news agency and the source of most news emanating from China. As such, it is authoritative, and its output/projections can safely be taken to represent the official view..

Xiaomi: Chinese smart phone manufacturer with investments in India

 

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Y


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Z


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