This page features snippets of information on the statistical front, i.e. facts and figures (about aspects of the mushrooming Sino-Indian economic interaction and the Chinese economy not commonly known), collated from the daily news items in the newspapers covered by the project in the main (and also others outside its ambit).
Alibaba: China’s top e-retailer with a reported market valuation as much as $ 80 billion. Is an active player in the Indian IT market, with strategic investments in e-retailer Snapdeal and Paytm in particular.
Apus (A Perfect User System): Leading Chinese app maker, 15% of whose 80 million users are reported to come from India, its largest market.
Baidu: China’s largest search engine that (together with Soso.com) enables the country to manage very well without Google, which was forced to curb its operations in China in 2010 due to censorship restrictions. [The trio of the three giant I-net companies Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent are known as BAT (with phone manufacturer, Xiaomi, a close fourth, i.e. BAXT).]
Buddhism: The number of Buddhists in Tibet (the province known as Tibet Autonomous Region) is given as 46000 in the latest official Chinese White Paper, “Successful Practice of Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet”, reported by the China Daily (7/9/2015). Other statistics reported include 358 “living Buddhas” in the region, more than 60 of whom are said to be “newly incarnated according to customs and religious rituals”.
Car Market: At about 20 million sales (in 2014), China is the largest car (automobile) market in the world.
Cheetah Mobile: a NYSE listed Chinese utility app firm that has 40 million active users in India. Has partnered Micromax, InMobi and others..
CNOOC: China National Offshore Oil Corporation — a 70% Government owned Chinese national oil company that was in the news in 2005 when its bid to acquire the US oil firm UNOCAL was thwarted by the the US CFIUS (Committee on Foreign Investment in the US). The proposed deal was opposed in the US on political grounds, not on any official finding of security concerns, resulting in CNOOC being compelled to withdraw its offer citing “unprecedented political opposition” and “a level of uncertainty that presented an unacceptable level of risk”. (Peterson Institute of International Economics Number PB15-17 September Co2015)
Corruption: Acc to China Daily (July 30, 2015), a sum of 38.7 bn yuan ($6.2 bn) was recovered in anti-corruption campaign between November 2012 and June 2015.
Counterfeit currency: The China News Service revealed (11/8/2015) that fake money worth 329, 415 and 532 million yuam respectively was seized during 2012-2014 (marking annual increases of about 25%).
Debt : Total debt in 2014 stood at USD 28.2 trillion, according to an Mckinsey Global Institute study, nearly half of it directly or indirectly related to real estate (whose prices are up 60% over 2008) and local government debt forming another substantial chunk. State debt is about 55% of GDP, high yet substantially lower than in Western economies, according to MGI.
Didi Kuadi (Quick Drop): China’s largest transportation app maker that has joined hands with the Indian taxi aggregator, Ola, to fight Uber, the giant US based international company. Didi Kuaidi was formed after a merger of two leading car-hailing companies in China. It is currently valued at US$15 billion, which is 3 times that of Ola in India.
E-commerce: China’s e-commerce transactions touched 16 trillion yuan in 2014, acc to the National Bureau of Statistics cited by People’s Daily online on 4/8/2015) — 8.72 on B2B platforms, 7.01 for third partyplatforms and 0.66 trillion on mixed platforms for corporations and third parties. China’s cross-border e-commerce trade volume touched RMB 4.2 trillion ($ 670 billion) in 2014. (China Daily 8/9/2015 report on the 14th World Business Leaders Round Table).
(GHG) Emissions: Revised coal consumption figures for previous years, released by the National Bureau of Statistics, reveal that actual consumption was significantly more than stated previously — 600 million tonnes more in 2012 alone, for instance. This implies understatement of Chinese contribution to global GHG emissions, and to global warming, as well. (TOI 5/11/2015 citing AFP)
Environmental Degradation: A total of 1.73 million sq kms (18% of the country’s total land area) of soil has been lost to desertification over the past 50 years, acc to a China Daily item (29/7/2015)
FDI: Vice-Commerce Minster Wang Shouwen expects FDI in China in 2015 to touch USD 125 bn (Global Times (English) July 19/20. 2015)
Forest Cover: China Daily claimed that with a steady increas in foest cover over th e eyars, it is expected to reach 23% by 2015 end, from 21.63 % (208 million ha) in 2013 (?) and 18.21% in 2006, with an improvement in the quality of forests as well.
GCL (Golden Concord Holdings Ltd.): Name of Chinese energy giant which has signed a strategic collaboration agreement with the Indian firm, Adani Enterprises, for joint ventures in clean energy, petroleum logistics and photo-voltaic sectors.
GDP: 63.6 trillion yuan (USD 10.4 trillion) in 2014. Tertiary industry accounted for 48.1% (largest sector since 2012). (National Bureau of Statistics Report featured in the People’s Daily (English)) It increased further to 49.5 % in the first half of 2015.
Annual income per caoita touched USD 7575 in 2014 (Xinhua 11/9/2015) and disposable income USD 3290.
Gold: India and China remain the highest consumers of gold in the world, with almost half (45% of) the total world demand. India overtook China in 2014 (imports of 843 tonnes and 814 tonnes respectively, with the 2015 Indian figure expected to rise to 850-950 tonnes). Jewellery, not investment, accounts for the bulk (60-65%) of demand in India, unlike China. (ET based on World Gold Council Report). Total stock of gold in India is approx. 20,000 tonnes.
Ghost children: Term used to describe children born “outside the plan” under the ‘one-child policy’, in addition to the single child registered officially. Gained notoriety because of the denial of State subsidised education, health etc (citizen) benefits to such children due to their non-existence as citizens on paper (in practice, in contravention of rules which only provid efor afine, not denial of citizenship rights). Said to number as many as 6.5 million (according to TOI 2/11/2015 based on a NYTS article citing a researcher Wan Haiyuan)
Huawei Technologies: Chinese telecom major barred from operations in the USA on security grounds,
Hukou system: Refers to the system of mandatory registration of all nationals in their place of birth in vogue in China to prevent free migration across the country. Relaxed in recent decades, post-reform 1978, it resulted in a severe adverse impact on the upbringing of ‘migrant children; because of their parents not being entitled to access to State subsidised education facilities and health care outside their traditional place of residence.
Calls for reform of the ‘hukou system’ are made regularly, in the National People’s Congress, media etc. but not much advance has been made on the ground.
Higher Education: 110 million is the number of persons in China who have received higher education (USA 76 million), acc to China Daily (21/7/2015) Over a million science and engineering graduates per year.
Investment Overseas: Total outbound direct (non-financial) investment (ODI) from China in 2014 was $123.1 bn. In the first three quarters of 2015, it was $ 87.3 bn, a 16.5% increase over the previous year. The fast increase was attributed to increased mergers and acquisitions by Chinese enterprises, active investment by non-state owned companies and more contracted projects in high value added fields, in keeping with the trend world-wide — globally, approx. 80% of FDI tales place via foreign companies taking over local firms. (Xinhua quoting the Ministry of Commerce 15/10/2015)
Inequality: With a Gini co-efficient of 0.469 in 2014 (National Bureau of Statistics cited in Global Times 27/7/2015), China is one of the most unequal countries in the world, more than the USA or India. With its per capita GDP ranking 90th in the world, it still has 70.17 million people below the USD 376 (RMB 2300, p.a.poverty line accepted officially. (Global Times 15/10/2015)
Jingdong: A leading Chinese e-commerce firm
PLEASE TYPE ONLY HERE FOR Glossary of K
Left-behind children: Term in vogue in China to describe children of migrant workers left behind in the villages with relatives (usually grand-parents) or to fend for themselves, when both parents migrate to urban areas in search of a livelihood. Numbers are as many as 61 million, according to a recent (July 2015) White Paper that was brought out in the wake of four such children having committed suicide..
The related terms “migrant children” and “ghost kids” refer to children who accompany their parent(s) to urban areas but are still a cause for national concern because of the adverse impact of the ‘hukou’ system. (See under H) and (additional) children born “outside the plan” under the one child policy (See under G)
Middle Class: At 100 million adults, China’s middle class is the world’s largest. However, that forms only 11% of its population, in contrast to 55% in Japan and similar high ratios in other industrialised countries.(Global Times 947227 15/10/2015)
Migrant Children: The term refers to children who accompany their migrant worker parent(s) to urban areas but are still a cause for national concern (of China “risking raising a lost generation”) because of the adverse impact of the ‘hukou’ system. (See under H) Deprived of access to subsidised schooling and health care, they are “forced to go to make-shift, non-Government and yet expensive, schools which often lack adequate teaching and focus mainly on profits”.
One out of four children in urban areas is a migrant child,according a 2010 UNICEF Survey, said to have risen to one out of three by 2013 — a total of 35.8 million.
PLEASE TYPE ONLY HERE FOR Glossary of N
OnePlus: Chinese smart phone manufacturer that has tied up with Taiwanese firm Foxconn to manufacture smart phones in Andhra Pradesh at Foxconn’s Rising Stars factory in Sri City. The first batch of handsets produced in India is expected to be available commercially before the end of 2015. (TOI)
ODI (Outbound direct (non-financial) investment): See Investment Overseas under I.
Overseas Chinese: number more than 60 million (Xinhua July 7, 2015)
Outbound tourists: See Tourism
Outbound students: China has the biggest number of students who study abroad – 459,800 in 2014 — according to a 2015 OECD report cited in a Global Times 2/6/2016 article.
Patents: One third of new technical patents globally are created by Chinese companies every year, acc to Xinhua (27/7/2015)
Poverty Incidence: “The number of rural residents with an annual income less than 2300 yuan had fallen by 12.32 million, to 70.17 million, by the end of 2014”. (Xinhua8/6/2015, no mention of their urban counterparts)
Private-donor foundation: 非公墓基金会 ((fei gong mu ji jin hui) Alashan SEE, set up in 2008, was the first organisation of its kind (and the only one at that time).
Qiku Internet: Chinese firm that entered the smart phone space in 2014.
Start-up firms: An average of 10,000 new start-ups (firms) are registered in China every day, according to Premier Li Keqiang cited by Xinhua on 11/9/2015. (Also Vice-Minister of Industry and IT, Xin Guobin by TOI 12/10/2015 , with the total number of firms being said to have reached about 6 million at the end of August 2015 (most of them small firms.) Separate claim of 2.1 million new enterprises registered in the first half of 2015 with total registered capital of 12 trillion yuans (USD 1.9 trillion) acc to Xinhua (20/7/2015) consistent with these figures, extraordinarily high though they would appear to be.
State Owned Enterprises (SOEs): Numbering 150,000 in all, SOEs constitute the backbone of the Chinese economy with over 100 trillion yuan (USD 15/7 trillion) worth of assets. and employee strength of over 30 million. (Global Times (English) 16/9/2015 basing itself on Xinhua). And a 25% share in industrial output (78% in 1978) As well as its Achille’s heel, since all reforms founder at this door. Under the proposed reforms, SOEs are to be divided into two categories: for profit entities and those dedicated to public welfare.
Of the 111 major central SOEs under the State owned Assets Supervision and Administrative Commission (SASAC), and another 25000 under local governments, employing about 7.5 million people. 107 maintain 8515 branches abroad with overseas assets of $ 790 bn.
According to a July 13, 2015 article on the website of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI), Inspections at SOEs revealed leaders abusing their power for personal gain and benefit at the expense of public interest. China National Nuclear Corporation and China Nuclear Engineering Corporation were among the 6 major SOEs to be scolded publicly. (Xinhua 14/7/2015).
Tencent: Name of one of the three (actually four) Chinese IT giants — BAXT — which has invested in Indian start ups (the medical services firm, Practo) and other firms in a big way.
Tourists: Total outbound tourists from China during 2015 crossed 128 million (Global Times 23/5/2016, citing a study on Consular Protection cases). India’s share only approx. 250,000. The latter figure contrasts with over 350,000 tourists from India to China in the first half of 2015 (ET 24/7/2015).
The top 5 ranking destination countries are U.S.A, Britain, Germany, France and Japan.
The number of Chinese tourists going to Japan touched 2.18 million during the first half of 2015, double that during the same period in 2014. That doubling is expected to be maintained during the whole of 2015. Massive shopping sprees are said to underlie this spurt, with a falling yen having further enhanced the attraction of Japan (due, in the first place, to lower prices of sought after items such as cancer medicines and household items like toilet seats, thermoses and shavers). (TOI 12/10/2015)
Overall overseas consumption by Chinese people was over $ 150 billion ( 1 trillion yuan), according to China Daily (19/10/2015) — the highest in the world for three consecutive years.
Outbound tourism resulted in 86,678 consular protection cases involving 95,860 individuals (1928 casualties) accepted by the MOFA, according to the GT 23/5/2016 report
US-PRC relations: are marked by heavy interdependency and mutual benefit, acc to most projections in the Chinese media: two way investment of USD 110 bn plus and soaring, annual trade of USD 550 -600bn (“one of the largest in the world”), exchange of about 4.5 million visitors each year with a flight between the two countries every 17 minutes and over 270,000 Chinese students in the USA, a third or so of all foreign students in USA. (China Daily 4/8/2015)
Vivo: Name of China’s fourth largest mobile phone manufacturer (after Xiaomi, Huawei and Apple, ahead of Samsung) that entered the Indian market in December last and is due to commence assembly in India in FY 15-16. It has been in the news for its marketing blitzkreig, including substitution of Pepsico in it sponsorship of the IPL, in a bid to enhance its market share (currently no more than 2%) . Unlike many of its competitors, it is reported to be betting more on off line retail than on line, positioning itself in the premium smart phones segment and following a deeper, conventional, business model.
PLEASE TYPE ONLY HERE FOR Glossary of W
Xiaomi: Chinese smart phone manufacturer with investments in India
PLEASE TYPE ONLY HERE FOR Glossary of Y
PLEASE TYPE ONLY HERE FOR Glossary of Z