Journal : Global Times (Chinese) Date : Author : NA Page No. : 7
URL : NA

部电影与印度的宗教迷思

“请您先等一会儿,我得向神灵祈祷了,哦……您等的时间可能会长一些,毕竟向几千万个神灵祈祷着实要花些时间。”这是印度畅销书《白老虎》中的一段话。如果说这段调侃让很多人见识了印度神明之多,最近在印度引发观看热潮的喜剧电影《PK》则更直观地将人们带入一个“神奇”的宗教与神明社会。不过,讽刺宗教陋习的《PK》在印度引发巨大争议,甚至被称为“印度最具争议电影”“印度的《查理周刊》”。据报道,《PK》将很快在中国公开上映。在几乎人人信教的印度,宗教和神明的地位至高无上,这种传统持续了数千年,但在当下印度高速发展的时代,很多人都在反思宗教所扮演的角色。一名中国学者对《环球时报》记者说,“宗教是否有利于印度现代化”在印度社会是一个争议性的话题,尽管人民党籍印度总理莫迪具有宗教民族主义倾向,但随着印度对外开放的深入,宗教世俗化或将成为趋势。

“Please wait for a while, I have to pray to the deities. Oh……you may need to wait for more than a while, after all, it takes quite some time to pray to thousands of deities.” This is quoted from Indian best seller, “The White Tiger”. If this paragraph of teasing showed many people the great amount of Indian deities, the recent popular comedian movie “PK” directly introduced people into an amazing society of religions and divinities. However, PK caused great controversy in India as it criticized corrupt religious customs, and was even called the “most controversial movie in India” and “Charlie Hebdo of India”. According to report that PK would be released in China recently. In India, a country which almost all people are religious, the status of religions and deities is transcendent; this tradition has lasted for several thousand years, however, in this rapid developing era of India, many people have been rethinking the character religions played. A Chinese scholar said to reporter of Global Times that whether religion is working positively in the modernization of India is a controversial topic in Indian society, even though Indian prime minister Modi, a leader of Bharatiya Janata Party, is pro religious nationalism, as the depth of openness of India increases, religious secularization may be trendy.

“万庙之国”

Country with thousands temples

据美国《好莱坞报道》披露,印度电影《PK》将在中国上映。根据一份声明,《PK》是中影集团和华夏电影集团直接从印度引入的一部电影,该片将在中国超过3500块荧屏上放映,但具体日期不得而知。据报道,有关协议1月30日在北京签署。

According to American Hollywood Reporter, Indian movie PK would be released in China. Based on a declaration, PK was directly imported from India by China Film Group Corporation and Huaxia Film Group Corporation, and it would be projected on over 3,500 screens in China with unspecified date. It is reported that relative agreement was signed in Beijing on Jan 30th.

“PK”是“Peekay”的缩写,意为“醉汉”。这部影片讲述一个外星人迷失在地球上,在宗教氛围浓厚的印度寻找回家的通讯工具的故事。片中,在人们的“指点”下,这名外星人开始寻求神的帮助,闯入充斥着伪善与欺骗的各类宗教机构。他稀里糊涂地参拜众神,向警察报案“神收了钱不办事”,四处张贴“寻神海报”,要“找神说理”……

“PK” is short for “Peekay”, meaning drunken man. This movie tells the story about a lost alien trying to find communication tools to go back home in India, the country with thick religious atmosphere. In the movie, “directed” by people, this alien seeks for help from deities, breaks into all sorts of religious organizations filling with hypocrisy and lies. Being confused, he starts to worship all deities, report to the police that “god doesn’t help as he was paid”, post “notice of missing God” everywhere, and try to reason with God……

《PK》去年底上映后不断刷新纪录,创下宝莱坞史上票房新高。英国《卫报》称,这部讽刺宗教的电影是印度最成功的一部电影。该片在印度引起极其热烈的反响,很多印度青年开始反思印度宗教引起的社会问题和民族矛盾,但也有民众包围和打砸电影院,宣称要捍卫神圣的宗教,一度传闻印度政府想封杀这部电影。

Since it was released by the end of last year, PK has been constantly making new records, set an all-time high in the history of Bollywood box office. British media, the Guardian, claimed that this is the most successful religious criticizing movie in India. This movie aroused tremendous response in India, caused many Indian young people to rethink about the social issues and ethnic conflicts triggered by Indian religion; but there are also people besieging and smashing cinemas, claiming to defend the sacred religion. Once there was a popular rumor that Indian government wanted to ban this movie.

电影中所描述的主人公与“神”的纠纷让人啼笑皆非,但说印度神明众多并不夸张。印度的文明史长达5000年,它几乎拥有世界上所有宗教——印度教、佛教、耆那教、锡克教、伊斯兰教等。除伊斯兰教、基督教、袄教等源于异域外,其他各教可以说均是印度的“土特产”。宗教众多,教派林立,有人说印度有3000多万个神灵,有的说上亿。

The dispute between the protagonist and “God” described in the movie puts people between tears and laughter, but the movie is not exaggerating about India having lots of Deities. India, with five thousand years of civilization, has believers of almost all religions in the world: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Islam and etc.. Despite Islam, Christian, Zoroastrianism and such were originated in exotic land, all other religions are “local specialties” of India. With all the religions and sects, some say India possesses over thirty million deities, some say billion.

今天的印度,信教者众,不信者寡。上海国际问题研究中心南亚中亚研究所所长王德华告诉《环球时报》记者,印度是一个多宗教的人口大国,目前印度教信徒占全国总人口约80%。据了解,印度教三大主神为湿婆、毗湿奴和梵天,等而次之尚有罗摩、克里希那、哈奴曼等众神,大大小小的神仙加在一起有上万之众。

In the present India, almost entire population is believer. Director of South Asian Institute of Shanghai Institutes for International studies, Mr. Dehua Wang told reporter of the Global Times that India is a multi-religious country with great population, and approximate 80% of its population believes in Hinduism. It is recorded that the three major deities of Hinduism are Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma; beneath them, there are Rama, Krishna, Hanuman and etc., all the deities add up to tens of thousands.

教多,神多,庙自然多。印度称得上“万庙之国”。印度教的神庙遍布大街小巷,大的金碧辉煌、雕梁画栋,小的只是一座立在路边的简单佛龛,还有人干脆就在街口竖立一座硕大的神像。除此之外,伊斯兰教的清真寺、锡克教的神庙随处可见,甚至鳞次栉比挨在一起,使得每一寸土地因此都处在神的“庇荫”之下。《环球时报》记者年初在印度泰米尔纳德邦的坦贾武尔采访,发现当地一条200多米长的街道两旁竟排列着10座印度教寺庙。

As there are more religions and more deities, so there are more temples and monasteries. India is the country of thousands temples. Hindu temples spread all over the streets; big ones are resplendent and magnificent with relieves and paintings; small ones are just simple niche for a statue of the deity. Some people just place a giant statue of a deity in the street. Besides, Islam Masjids and Sikh Shrines can be seen everywhere, even crowded together, so that every inch of land is protected by deities. In the beginning of the year, when a reporter of the Global Times worked in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu of India, he found a local over 200-meter street with 10 Hindu temples.

神明至上

The Supreme of Deities

印度近代哲学家维韦卡南达曾说:“在印度,宗教生活成了中心,它是民族生活整个乐章的主要基调。”印度人宗教情结之深令外人吃惊。《环球时报》记者了解到,印度人的生老病死、衣食住行几乎都离不开神。印度教徒刚出生的婴儿要带到神庙祈福,去世后骨灰要撒入恒河才能获得神灵保佑。而在其一生中,从婴儿起名字到选择职业和结婚对象,神灵都在发挥影响。

According to Swami Vivekananda, a latter-day Indian philosopher, the life-center of India is spirituality, religion is the dominant of note of the movement of nation’s life. The depth of Indian’s religious complex astonishes outsiders. Reporter of the Global Times learned that deities are involved in birth, senility, illness, death, and all basic necessities of life of Indian people. Hindus bring newborn babies to temples to be blessed, and spread ashes of the dead in the Ganges to be protected by the deities. Throughout their entire life, from naming the baby, to choosing a career and a marriage partner, Deities exert their influence.

印度人几乎家家供神。富裕家庭有专门的神室,境况差些的在门厅或过道里设有神龛,家境贫寒的就在墙上或床头挂上神像,睡在路边或破棚子里的穷人搞张神像挂在树上。印度人每天早上一起来要先拜神,到神像前点上一盏油灯,双手合十祈祷。中国人举行庆典时讲究剪彩,印度人在开会前则要举行点灯仪式,先敬神再开始其他议程。

Almost all Indians enshrine deity at home. Rich families have a room specially set for Deities, families not as rich would set up a shrine in the hall or by the hallway, poor people hang paintings of God on the wall or above their headboards. Every morning, Indian people worship deities before doing anything, light up an oil lamp, put their hands together and pray. Chinese cut the ribbon at an opening ceremony; Indian have light ceremony before conference, worship God before processing any agenda.

在阿拉哈巴德大壶节期间,记者看到成千上万人聚集,信徒们不顾严寒,跳入恒河沐浴。尽管按照环保的标准,恒河水的污染已经很严重了,但依然无法阻挡信徒们在河中没顶沐浴甚至是大口喝下河水,以期带走身上的罪孽。这常常让外国人看得目瞪口呆。不仅民间,新德里某地方法院也曾经因为请神汉帮忙捉鬼而闹得沸沸扬扬。

During Maha Kumbh Mela in Aallahabad, reporter saw gathering of thousands of people. Believers jump into the Ganges River to bath despite of the chilliness. Even though according to environmental protection standard, water of the Ganges is severe polluted, it doesn’t stop believers from jumping into the water and drinking, expecting their sin could be wash away. This scene always astonishes foreigners. Not only among people, a regional court had made a scene requesting help from sorcerer to catch ghost.

在印度,许多受教育程度很高的人会在作出重大人生决策时去咨询占星家的意见。除了占星术外,还有一些与印度传统信仰有关的迷信风俗,如在家门上或汽车上贴出象头神或万字图形以期获得好运。如果在路上遇到黑猫,会有很多印度人将某项重要工作改期进行;如果镜子碎了,也会整日闷闷不乐。“这些可不全是迷信”,《环球时报》记者经常听到一些印度朋友——既有企业高管也有大学生——这样说。

In Indian, many highly educated people would consult with astrologers when making major life decisions. Besides astrology, there are some superstitions regarding Indian traditional believes, as if you expect good luck by sticking Ganesha or Svatika on vehicles or doors. Many Indian people would reschedule important task if they met a black cat on the way; they would be gloomy all day if a mirror was broken. “These aren’t all superstitions.” Reporters of the Global Times always hear from some of their Indian friends, even senior manager of enterprise or college students.

美国《商业内幕》曾列举一系列“只会在印度发生的怪事”,其中一条是:“神明上墙,防止便溺”。文章称,在印度,随地大小便问题严重。英国广播公司(BBC)专栏作家拉乌·坦顿曾写文章描述过一家人把神明的像贴到墙上,以防人们往墙上撒尿的事。

American Business Insider has listed a series of “weird things that only happen in India”, one of them is, “Deity on the wall, no warries for urine and feces”. In the article, it says that open urination and defecation is a serious issue in India. British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC) columnist has written an article describing a family who stick painting of a deity on the wall to avoid people urinating there.

如今的印度,豪华酒店紧邻贫民窟,现代化软件园里矗立着湿婆庙,巨富与赤贫、古典与现代和谐共存。同时,各种宗教也以其原本的面目在印度生存,相互之间虽有交集,但它们的融合并不是水乳交融式的,更像把油和水掺在一起,和而不同。不过,宗教束缚下的印度仍能看到中世纪的影子。

In today’s India, fancy hotels locate next to ghetto; Shiva temples stand in modern software park; millionaire and destitute, classic and modern coexist in harmony. At the same time, different religions live in India with their true color, although they intersect, their fusion is not in complete harmony, it is more like mixing water with oil, they are tighter but don’t blend. Nevertheless, shadow from mid-century still flashes in the India constraint by religions.

无解的“圆”

Unsolvable circle

面对众多的神灵和复杂的宗教仪式,以及宗教对生活无孔不入的影响,近年来印度社会出现了一些反思声音。《PK》即是其中之一。事实上,《PK》的主演阿米尔·汗在他的另一部经典作品《三傻大闹宝莱坞》中就有过嘲讽神灵的桥段:当一个学生拿出100卢比敬神祈求通过考试时,主人公说,这点钱贿赂警察都不够,哪能请得动神呢?

Facing so many deities, complex religious rituals and religions’ all-pervasive influence in people’s life, there are some rethinking in India in recent years. “PK” is one of them. As a matter of effect, in the leading actor of “PK”, Aamir Khan’s another classic, “3 idiots”, there is a plot taunting deities: when a student offers 100 rupees to a deity, praying for passing the exam, the main character says that this little money was not even enough to bribe a cop, how can it be enough to quest descending of a God?

2012年,印度也有一部类似影片曾经引发讨论,电影名为《偶滴神啊》(Oh My God,简称OMG)。影片通过一个小店主向神发起诉讼的故事,揭露了神汉以“神的代言人”名义招摇撞骗的丑陋行径。

In 2012, there was a similar movie given rise to much discussion. The movie is called “Oh My God” (short for OMG). Through a story about a small business owner suing God, the movie exposes the ugly true of a sorcerer cheating and lying as “representative of Deity”.

据《今日印度》报道,由于《PK》和《偶滴神啊》都对神的存在、宗教在社会中的地位以及以宗教名义进行的大规模洗劫提出质疑,受此鼓舞,印度安全警察部队的一名资深警官成立了一个名为“PK-OMG”的信托组织,鼓励人们理性思考,反对迷信和蒙昧主义。

According to Indian Today, encouraged by “PK” and “OMG”, the two movies question the existence of deities, the social status of religion and mass looting in the name of religion, a senior police office of Indian security police force established a trust organization namely “PK-OMG” to encourage rational thinking, against superstition.

其实,从历史看,印度曾不断进行过改革尝试。比如“圣雄”甘地曾试图进行变革,希望位于印度种姓制度最底层的达利特(贱民)阶层能够得到公正对待,他称他们为“上帝之子”。但甘地本人却为此遭到极端主义的印度教徒刺杀。

Actually, throughout the history, India has never stopped trying to reform. For example, Mahatma Gandhi has tried to carry on reform, hoping the lowest caste of caste system, Dalit could be treated fairly. He called them son of God. However, Gandhi was assassinated by Hindu extremist.

印度独立之后,大力推动政教分离,老牌政党国大党以世俗主义的捍卫者自居。然而,移风易俗并非易事。尽管世俗主义的口号喊了半个多世纪,但对于穆斯林、锡克教徒、耆那教等而言,宗教生活并未受到多少影响,对于普通民众来说,宗教仍是生活的全部。

Since the independence of India, National Congress, the old political party poses as defender of secularism, strongly promoting separation of Politics and religion; however, changing custom is not easy. Even though, the slogan of secularism has been shouted for over half century, religious life for Muslim, Sikhs and Jains hasn’t really been affected. Life for regular people is still all about religion.

事实上,多样和包容是印度宗教和文化的特色。正因其包容和多样,印度的宗教传统非常难以改变,即使英国人在印度殖民统治几百年,仍无法改变其分毫。印度就如同一个无解的“圆”,哪怕你用再大的力量压迫它,它的内核不变,随时可以恢复成一个“圆”,就像经历一个轮回。

In fact, diversity and tolerance is the specialty of Indian religion and culture. Because of its tolerance and diversity, religious tradition of India is very hard to change. Even though British had ruled India colony for hundreds of years, it wasn’t able to change a little of India. India is like an unsolvable circle, no matter how hard you push it, its core remains the same, and ready to revert to circle like experiencing a reincarnation.

更让印度精英无奈的是,虽然都是“神”的子孙,印度各教派在历史上难以做到和谐相处,而是积怨很深。庙宇寄托了信众崇高的期望,但也往往成为宗教冲突的承受者。宗教仇恨,越结越深,但不少政客从中看到了机会。每逢选举,他们总是极力鼓吹宗教优越论,甚至直接策划宗教冲突。2013年9月,印度5个邦选举前夕,印度人口大邦——北方邦突然爆发宗教冲突,造成近百人死亡。印度内政部统计显示,2013年1月到9月,全印共发生宗教冲突451起。

What frustrates Indian elites is that, even though they are all descendants of deities, different Indian religions had a hard time getting along and have deep grievances in the history. Temples carry people’s lofty expectation, but they also sustain many religious conflict. As the hatred between religions grows, many politicians see opportunities. Every time during political campaign, they agitate religious superiority, or even plot religious conflicts. In September 2013, before the political campaign of five Pradesh, the Indian Pradesh with great population, Uttar Pradesh suddenly broke out religious conflict, caused death of nearly a hundred people. Statistics collected by Indian ministry of internal affairs showed that between January and September of 2013, there were 451 religious conflicts broke out in India.

寄望莫迪

Place hope on Modi

《环球时报》记者就印度宗教与传统的问题咨询过一位印度学者,他认为如此复杂的问题很难进行清晰解读,因为许多宗教的发展演变本身就是复杂而矛盾的。比如在印度历史上,佛祖释迦牟尼、耆那教的大雄马哈维那以及锡克教创始人那纳克,他们都曾真实生活在这个世界上,充当社会和文化的改革者,后来随着追随者和信众变多而发展成宗教,他们自己也成了神。像释迦牟尼,他其实是反对偶像崇拜的,后世信徒又有谁知道,自己顶礼膜拜的佛陀雕像其实是违背佛祖的意愿出现的?

A reporter of the Global Times has consulted an Indian scholar regarding the issue of Indian religions and traditions, he thought it was hard to clearly analyze such a complicate issue as the development of many religions itself is complex and paradoxical. For instance, in the history of India, the Lord Buddha Shakyamuni, Mahavira of Jainism, and Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, all have lived in the world as reformists of society and culture, became deities as their followers and believers formed religion. Lord Shakyamuni actually was against idolization, but which of his followers in the later generation know the statue of Buddha that they worship occurred against the Lord Buddha’s will?

中国印度问题专家钱峰3日告诉《环球时报》记者,他在与印度学者交流过程中,经常听到一些反思宗教对印度现代化影响的声音。有学者认为,印度教主张“轮回转世”,过于强调精神生活,其信徒在现实生活中缺乏物质追求,容易产生“小富即安”的想法,导致国家经济发展缺乏内生动力。印度教种姓制度的影响也根深蒂固,阻碍社会阶层流动,不利于民主制度长远发展。尽管如此,印度学界的主流意见是,多元宗教传统是国家软实力和民族凝聚力的来源,“轮回转世”思想也有助于形成相对宽容平和的社会心态。

Chinese expert in Indian issues, Feng Qian spoke to a reporter of the Global Times that during his discussion with Indian scholars, he often heard about introspection in the effect of religion in Indian modernization. Some scholars considered that the Hindu proposition of reincarnation over emphasizes spiritual life, causes Hindus’ lack of material pursuit in real life, which further leads to lack of endogenous power for domestic economy. The influence of Hindu caste system is also inveteracy, interfering with the mobility of social classes, which is negative to the long term development of democratic system. Nevertheless, the main stream of Indian scholars is that tradition of religious diversity is the fountain of national soft power and cohesion, the ideology of reincarnation is beneficial to form a peaceful and tolerant social mentality.

钱峰表示,近年来,由于印度政府逐渐将经济发展摆在国家的突出位置,淡化宗教分歧,物质主义思潮在印度社会——特别是年轻人中的影响与日俱增。这一趋势在莫迪上台后尤为明显。莫迪有一句名言:建厕所比建寺庙更重要。这句话的意思就是印度人应当将注意力更多地放在经济发展上,有更多物质追求。作为一名虔诚的印度教徒,莫迪在高度强调发展经济的同时,也采取措施维护印度宗教传统,正是因为他不希望印度教的某些传统阻碍经济发展。

Feng Qian expressed that in recent years, thanks to Indian government taking economic growth as priority which has downplayed the religious disagreement, the influence of materialism in Indian society, especially in the younger generation, has been gradually increased. This tendency becomes clearer as Modi took the office. Modi has said that building bathroom is more important than building temple. The meaning behind this sentence is that Indian people should put more attention into economic growth and devotion to material. As a devout Hindu, along with emphasizing economic development, Modi also takes actions to preserve Indian religious tradition, because he doesn’t want some Hindu traditions to interfere with economic development.

王德华对《环球时报》记者说,“宗教是否有利于印度现代化”在印度是一个争议性话题,一派人主张开展以世俗化为导向的宗教改革,另一派人则趋于保守,主张回归印度教传统,认为种姓制度有效维持了印度社会的稳定,给中下阶层以希望,成功避免了暴力革命发生。尽管现任总理莫迪具有宗教民族主义倾向,但随着印度对外开放的深入,宗教世俗化或将成为趋势。

Dehua Wang told the reporter of the Global Times that whether religion is beneficial to the modernization of India is a controversial topic in India. One faction proposes to carry out religious revolution oriented to secularization. The other is more conventional, proposing to return to Hinduism tradition; it believes that caste system is effective in maintaining the stability of Indian society, provides hope to middle and lower class, and succeeds in avoiding violent revolution. Although the present Prime Minister Modi consists with nationalistic-leaning, as the deep development of India’s openness, the secularization of religion may be the trend.

据《环球时报》记者观察,如今,印度的年轻一代比较看好总理莫迪,认为他能够带领印度走上一个新台阶。截至目前,莫迪对《PK》持宽容态度,虽未置一词赞美但也没有公开批评或封杀,也许这是一个积极信号。

Base on the observation of the reporter of the Global Times, presently, the younger generation of India favors Prime Minister Modi, considers him being able to lead India to a new level. Up to now, Modi has been lenient to PK. Even though he hasn’t given any compliment, he didn’t criticize or ban it publicly, which may be a positive signal.

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