China aids India with infrastructure, US aids India with high-tech, Japan aids India with high-speed train and manufacturing, Russia and Australia aids India with energy, Singapore aids India with urban construction and financial service, and France aids India with military equipment… In Modi’s mind, he conceives a chessboard .
From May 14th to 16th, Narendra Modi made his first official visit to China since he inaugurated as new Indian Prime Minister. His 3-day visit includes a number of events in the cities of Xi’an, Beijing and Shanghai.
There are many reasons why Modi chose Xi’an as the first leg of his China visit. Firstly, Chinese President Xi Jinping, during his official trip to India last year, visited Gujarat, Modi’s hometown; and Xi’an happens to be the hometown of President Xi. Therefore, Modi’s return visit is interpreted as a friendly interaction between the two leaders. Secondly, Xi’an stands as a symbol of the long history of amity between China and India, as Xuan Zang,the famous monk in Tang Dynasty, went on a pilgrimage and finally arrived in Gujarat to receive the Buddhist scriptures,had disseminated them all over China right here in Xi’an after he returned to China and translated the scriptures. Another notable reason is that Xi’an is seen as the starting point of famous “Silk Road”, whose route runs southwestward and finally reached India. All said and done, Modi’s choice of India is of great significance.
A native of Gujarat, Modi inherited from his ancestors the talent of doing business. Right after he inaugurated as Indian Prime Minister, he brought out the plan of “Make in India” immediately, followed by the concept of “Smart City”. Furthermore, Modi has also stressed development of industries with strategic foundations, such as solar power. He is convinced that it is impossible for India to build herself as a first-rate superpower in the world all by herself; therefore, “foreign aid” must be included.
If Modi’s foreign policies are compared to a wheel, the axis lies in India’s economic growth and development, and the spokes are named China, US, Japan, Russia, Australia, Singapore, France, etc. So smart Modi is, he confers different roles on these countries according to their respective strengths: China aids India with infrastructure, US aids India with high-tech, Japan aids India with high-speed train and manufacturing, Russia and Australia aids India with energy, Singapore aids India with urban construction and financial service, and France aids India with military equipment… In Modi’s mind, he conceives a chess board.
莫迪的生意，是一盘很大的棋。Modi’s business is done on achess board.
“Modi abandons the stereotyped attitude India held about China”
Modi opened his official account on Sina Weibo – a Chinese social network – before he started his trip to China. Via Weibo, he mentioned his confidence that this visit would set tone for the extensive economic cooperation between the two countries, and his wish to discuss with Chinese business leaders the opportunities that could be availed of by India.
China is a country worthy of admiration in Modi’s perception. As a matter of fact, Modi visited China for more than once when he worked as the Chief Minister of Gujarat. At that point, Modi was denied entrance by many European and American countries as “he was responsible for the racial vendetta in Gujarat in 2001”. Instead, he cast his eyes upon China. Modi made efforts in developing the manufacturing industry in Gujarat, and after several years, Gujarat became “India’s Guangdong”. The miracles Modi brought to Gujarat also earned him a seat as the Prime Minister of India in 2014.
Ever since he inaugurated as Prime Minister, cooperation with China has been of high priority in Modi’s agenda. He also wished to boost India’s economy and bring in investments from China through this visit. But it was by no means easy for Modi. Pressurised by the nationalists in India, he also had to clarify and reiterate India’s standpoint of national interest when he was in China, and meanwhile, it was also his job to persuade Chinese investors that “he hoped to maintain a sound relationship between China and India” and that “India has prepared a one-stand service for them”.
Over the past 10 years, Chinese companies would always be hindered drastically by Indian government, when they tried to step into the key industries such as telecom and electric power in India. India media has been selling the concept that if China-made equipment were to be connected with India’s national grid, it would pose serious threats to India’s national security. Since Modi inaugurated as Prime Minister, he has been giving green light to Chinese investments, although he cannot eliminate all at once the voices of those who “reserve opinions on Chinese investments in India”.
Modi made several bold promises in the parliamentary election of 2014: 100 “Smart Cities”, 65 million cheap housings, 8000 kilometers of national highways, 16 new harbors, 1620 kilometers of thoroughfares, 15 thousand kilometers of natural gas lines, and large-scale solar power programs in 5 states… He also expected Chinese companies to be involved in related projects, and used public opinion to pave the way for China to enter smoothly into these projects. Raja Mohan, an India strategy analyst said: “Modi is abandoning the stereotyped attitude India holds about China, as he becomes aware that any major economic tie with China is impossible if national security mechanisms have a veto over economic policies.”
Also during his visit to China, Modi announced the decision that India will issue e-Visas to Chinese tourists. Adding to that were 21 agreements on economic cooperation, amounting to 22 billion US dollars. Those agreements covered the fields of recyclable energy, port trade, finance and industrial zones, etc.
In the signing ceremony, Modi, with great enthusiasm, summoned the senior leaders from Chinese companies: “Let’s hold hands and make joint effort in mutual interest… The environment in India is changing, and the country is now ready to get down to some practical work… Come to India, and we will offer you golden opportunities and make you at home here.”
两场活动，在美国刮起招商旋风 Two events that brought whirlwinds to US
In September 2014, Modi paid a “whirlwind” visit to US. Although many observers of international relations interpreted the visit as “the first strategic embrace between Modi and Obama, US President”, Modi himself attached greater importance to economic affairs- -the visit was actually a merchant’s tour downright, a plan for inviting US investments.
Even before he set off for US, Modi initiated a large-scale event prompting the notion of “Make in India”. Another notable feature of the events was that many embassies and consulates based in India hosted branch hall activities, echoing the main hall in New Delhi – those aspired to send clear signals to the international community (including and especially US): investments are welcome in India.
访美期间，莫迪举办了两场特别引人注目的活动。During his visit to US, Modi hosted two notable events.
One was the speech he delivered in Madison Square Garden, attended by over 20 thousand Indian origin persons from US and Canada. Modi told with confidence a story of India’s rise of power. “The world would mistake India for a country of snake-charmers. Yes we used to play with snakes, but now we play with the ‘mouse’– roll the mouse, and make the world work.
Modi seldom referred to notes in the one-hour speech. Especially when he spoke Hindi, the speech was virtually impromptu. He told his audience that India became the focus of the entire world, and no country over than India was possessed with such power. Furthermore, he promised that India would progress “in paces too quick to be imagined”, and vowed to make India “a dream country” through his consistent efforts.
The audience of India descent was deeply touched by Modi’s words: “He is trying to promote an image of India that we haven’t seen for long – India that stays as an active superpower on the international stage.”
The speech was also made for the Americans. There were a number of American listeners among the audience, including 40 congressmen.
Another major event was a breakfast meeting with over 10 senior leaders from US companies. Those invited to have breakfast with Prime Minister included Eric Schmidt (Executive Chairman of Google), Ginni Rometty (Chairwoman and CEO of IBM), Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi (Chairwoman and CEO of Pepsi), Jeffrey R.Immelt (Chairman and CEO of General Electric) and Lloyd Blankfein (Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs), etc.
Doug Oberhelman, Chairman and CEO of Caterpillar Inc., also attended the breakfast meeting. According to Oberhelman’s memories, Modi defined the past 5 years as “hard times for Indian people, Indian economy and the world as a whole”; therefore, he promised changes on behalf of India. Oberhelman also observed Modi’s serious tone in making those remarks, which only made his words more impressive and convincing.
And the purpose of his “breakfast diplomacy”– in Modi’s own words –was to invite the senior leaders from these large companies to “actively participate in the growth and transformation of Indian economy”.
Modi also announced a joint statement with US President Obama. Both sides promised to initiate a “Proposal for US Investments in India” with the development of capital market as the basis, and fundraising of infrastructure construction as the main body. The statement also aimed to increase investments from investors and companies, and elevate their bilateral trade volume from 100 billion to 500 billion US dollars thorough concrete measures.
Three months after Modi’s visit to US, President Obama paid an official visit to India in return. During this visit, Obama reached an agreement with Modi with on offering necessary technologies for nuclear power for civil use. The leaders of both countries also formed a contact group, so as to further push the 2006 US -India agreement on civilian nuclear power and to realize the aim that US transmits power through India-built nuclear plants as soon as possible. Besides, India would also set up an insurance pool of 15 billion rupee (around 14.6 billion RMB), to cover the compensation required in case of accidents caused by international nuclear reactors, and cleared last few obstacles for US companies to enter India. Modi saw the agreement on nuclear power of civil use as the core of new type mutual trust between US and India, which not only carved out new opportunities of business cooperation, but also offered more choices how India made use of clean energy.
Obama also promised India of 400 million of soft loan, so as to help small and medium-sized companies and to boost the economic and trade cooperation between two countries. Furthermore, US would assist India with the constructions of three “Smart Cities”: Visakhapatnam, Allahabad and Ajmer.
Tanvi Madan, Director of the India Project in Brookings Institution, thought it was Modi’s positive attitude that drove US to “fuel the fire”of the US-Indian relationship.
为日本投资者大开方便之门 To Further Facilitate Japanese Investors
Modi paid a visit to Japan in August and September of 2014. Although comments said India and Japan “made no concrete progress in bilateral relationship” during Modi’s visit, the Prime Minister did bring home a bunch of agreements amounting to 34 billion US dollars, wish-fulfilled. From his perspective, the trip to Japan was full of tremendous achievements.
During this visit, Modi spared no efforts in persuading Japanese investors. In Tokyo, he mentioned the concept of “Make in India” more than once in his speech entitled “Indian From Now On”, in face of around 2000 Japanese listeners. In the speech, he also encouraged small and medium-sized companies to invest in India: “Small and medium-sized companies in Japanese have chances to grow as large ones if they come to India.”
“When the diligence of Japanese people meets with Indian advantages, giant miracles will happen.”India is of great attraction to Japanese investors: an ample labor market of 1.2 billion people, 65% of which are under the age of 30; the labor force of India boasts lower cost and higher quality; Universities and vocational schools of India can provide multiple talents and technologies; Japanese companies can also make India as a base of import for her neighboring countries and Africa…
To further promote India’s value of “first choice of Japanese investments”, Modi made a promise to Japanese investors: “There is a ‘red-carpet’, rather than ‘red-tape’ here in India. Actually we have adjusted many regulations to facilitate Japanese companies’ entry to India. Any demands are welcomed as how to create a sound business environment, and we shall do our best to meet with them.”
Modi’s promise to Japanese investors was by no means an empty boast. Soon after he returned to India, he set up a special unit in the Prime Minister’s office, managing all Japanese investment-related affairs, and facilitating their contact with India. For the staff of the office, he appointed several officials who spoke Japanese.
Modi’s passion was echoed by the promises of Japanese government. Japan is aiming to double her investment in India, and the number of Japanese companies in India as well in 5 years’ time. Furthermore, Japanese investment and financial aid to India will reach 3.5 trillion Yen (around 35 billion US dollars), and they will be used primarily for infrastructure, transportation, “Smart City”, clean energy, skill training, food processing and urban development, etc.
Meanwhile, Japanese government is vigorously promoting the technologies of Shinkansen to India, and hopes to finish in the shortest term possible the feasibility studies of a high-speed railway between Mumbai and Ahmedabad whose speed reaches 500 km/h. In February, in answer to the question “Is India planning to import the technologies of Shinkansen”, an Indian official in charge of railway constructions gave a clear “Yes”, and he further mentioned that Modi himself was “very much interested” in Shinkansen.
能源危机？找“最好的朋友”帮忙Energy Crisis? Why Not Turn to “The Best Friend”
In December 2014, when Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in New Delhi with a bunch of deals that could meet India’s energy needs, Russia was isolated by other Western countries because of her role in Ukraine problem. Modi, instead, received Putin with a grand ceremony.
Russian officials describe the relationship between the two political leaders like this: “Modi and Putin maintained a sound relationship. They are both confident and charismatic political leaders with strong nationalistic sentiments, show great foresight for their respective countries, and put in their deepest hearts the core interests of their countries as always.”
Many Indians have a very good impression of Putin, and Modi shares their affections. During his 13-year tenure as the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Modi suffered from US sanctions, and turned to visit Russia for more than once.
During the BRICS summit held in Brazil, in July of 2014, Modi met Putin for the first time since he assumed charge as Indian Prime Minister. He refused to miss any chance to tell Putin how much importance Indians have attached to Russia. “If you ask an Indian kid who is our best foreign friend, Russia will be the unanimous answer.” Putin, as reported, was treading on air in hearing that, and Modi took advantage of the moment to promise that nothing would change between India-Russian relationship.
In Modi’s perception, not only is Russia a traditionally friendly country, she also meets India’s energy demands – which sounds more important. When delivering the proposal of “Make in India”, Modi had keenly observed the fact that the success of the plan would be impossible without ample energy supplies for departments of manufacturing and transportation.
As a matter of fact, the energy crisis which seems extremely urgent is now posing a serious threat to India’s capacity for building modern economy.
“Should energy crisis really occur in India, to whom would she turn for help? US or Russia?” Two research fellows from US think tanks once raised this seemingly sarcastic question. Chances are that India would pick Russia, whom she regards as “India’s best friend”. Although it is unlikely that Russia will augment her investments in India, she can still offer India with abundant energy – which is exactly what Modi desires.
During Putin’s official visit to India last year, Russia signed with India a series of important agreements. For example, Russia will provide India with 10 million tons of crude oil in the following 10 years, starting from 2015. Also reflected in the agreement are 12 nuclear reactors Russia will build for India in 20 years, and necessary equipment for the third and fourth electric generating set of Kudankulam Nuclear Plant. Those aids are not only conducive to Indian economy, but also beneficial for Russia herself as a method of meliorating her own domestic economy.
谋篇全球，取各国所长 Plan of a global composition, with the advantages of each country
Also concerning energy: When Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott visited Indian in the September of 2014, he signed with Modi an agreement of cooperation concerning civil nuclear use. In principle, Australia consented to export to India the uranium fuel and related technologies used for nuclear reactors. Before that, Australia, as the world’s third largest source of uranium, prohibited any export of uranium to India because of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. However, Modi changed the situation after he inaugurated as Indian Prime Minister. Abbott pointed out that Australian government had received “necessary promises” from Indian side, as India would use uranium for civilian nuclear projects only.
Modi promised to build 100 “Smart Cities” in India, and he sees Singapore as major potential partner in this endeavor. Singapore recently announced the upgrading of the “Smart Nation 2015” project – namely, “Smart Nation 2025”. India heard from K. Shanmugam, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore, and S. Iswaran, Minister in Prime Minister’s Office of Singapore during their respective visits to India that Singapore would assist India in its plan of “Smart Cities”.
France and Germany – the two European countries also become involved in Modi’s plan of building “Smart Cities”. Furthermore, their cooperation of India reaches out to the fields of sustainable infrastructure, recyclable energy, and high and medium-speed railways. Also worthy of our attention are 36 Dassault Rafales Modi ordered from France when he paid a visit in April of 2015. According to the reports of French media, Modi’s “Century Order” is worth up to 10 billion US dollars.
May 26th marks an anniversary of Modi’s inauguration as Indian Prime Minister. One year’s time sees his constant effort in selling the concept of “Make in India”, bringing in foreign investments, travelling around the world and borrowing as many advantages as possible from potential partners. One can see his diligence and intelligence as a businessman. Whether Modi can bring India to a new era remains to be testified by time, but his business tolerates no turning back in whatever circumstance.
India’s “China Policy” Witnesses Transformations Amid Tradition
The China Policy of Modi’s government has seen notable changes toward the positive side. India is now ready to embrace the idea of “New-type Relationship Between Two Large Countries”, as proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping, and becomes aware that the economic cooperation should play the major role for both countries.
By Song Dexing
Seen as the weather vane of the “China Policy” held by new Indian government, Modi’s first official visit to China as Indian Prime Minister became the focus of countries worldwide. Judging from what was achieved during this visit, and India’s new diplomatic policies in recent one year, the “China Policy”practiced by Modi government is a combination of tradition and transformation.
Tradition is reflected in Modi’s emphasis in China-Indian relationship, started and persisted by his predecessors. This is a consideration of not only practical interests, but also strategic plot. India aspires to maintain a relationship of strategic balance between herself and other large countries, so as to facilitate her peaceful rise as a “large country with sound influence” in the new century. This is the true connotation of India’s proclamation of a “multi-poled world of cooperation”. Meanwhile, India is not unaware of the fact that China, as the largest developing country in the world, holds a strategic aim of growing as a large country with outstanding status worldwide. Her interactions with India, therefore, are crucial components to this entire strategy, as China provides both opportunities and challenges for India. From the perspective of India, at least in Asia, the top priority of her diplomatic policy lies in the shaping of a stable, balanced China-Indian relationship.
Political elites in India also become aware that China-Indian relationship in the modern age has transcended the bilateral basis, and has developed a global strategic significance. Based on the situation, Modi was convinced that his visit to China was not only conducive to a bilateral relationship of pragmatic, extensive foundations, but also beneficial for the peace, progress and prosperity of Asia as a whole.
After Modi, the “strong man” in economy became head of state in India, India’s foreign policies have displayed a series of changes while inheriting most of the traditions: Firstly, the emphasis was transferred from politics to economy; secondly, India shifts from an idealistic manner to realism, bearing in mind the ultimate goal of rising as world superpower; thirdly, India starts to give priority to relationship between large countries, instead of stressing multi-lateral diplomacy of nonalignment; fourthly, India further discards her political initiative of opposing to Western countries (especially US); fifthly, India admits that China is of vital importance to her.
In light of the overall background above-said, the China Policy of Modi’s government has seen notable changes toward the positive side. India is now ready to embrace the idea of “New-type Relationship Between Two Large Countries”, as proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping, and becomes aware that the economic cooperation should play the major role for both countries. As a matter of fact, the chief task lying before China and India – two large developing countries – is to develop domestic economy and enhance people’s livelihood. To reach this target, both countries stressed the demand that development of China and India must be jointly boosted, and they had to deepen their commitments and elevate the level of cooperation.
Especially after the strategy of “One Belt, One Road” was proposed by Chinese government, India sees herein a new strategic opportunity for their bilateral relationship. The geographic location of India – right at cross of “One Belt” and “One Road”, determines the fact that India is not a natural, but also important partner in China’s strategy. Therefore, it is fair to conclude that Modi strove to strengthen pragmatic cooperation, implement win-win policies and push the economic and trade ties between China and India onto a new level via his visit.
It is also clear that the visits between senior leaders also aim at promoting a positive environment for China-Indian relationship to march on. Although Modi could not expect to eliminate the strategic suspicions (and jealousies as well) of China that are so deeply-rooted in the minds of some “political elites”, all the sensitive issues such as geographic politics are unlikely to block the way between China and India.
Modi said: “I would like to reiterate the fact that Tibet Autonomous Region is a part of People’s Republic of China. India tolerates no anti-China political activities conducted by Tibetans on the land of India. India is also ready to make joint effort with China to handle boundary disputes, and to find solutions as soon as possible via bilateral negotiations regarding these issues.”
Modi government is clear that the disputed boundary is only a part of China-Indian relationship, and this issue is so easy to be overshadowed by the strategic significance of China-Indian relationship in Asia, and in the world at large. Besides, the stable and constant development of China-India relationship will finally result in a peaceful settlement of boundary issues in the shortest term possible.
Chinese President Xi Jinping travelled afar to Xi’an – the capital of Shaanxi province, and his hometown as well – to greet Modi on his first leg of official visit to China. The fact only reminds us of the genuine intentions of Modi who received President Xi in Gujarat, his own hometown. The connotation is obvious – as two countries of ancient civilizations that are going on courses of revitalization, China and India need to join hands and defend the interests of developing countries, embracing the arrival of “Asia’s Century”. We may quote what Deng Xiaoping said to Rajiv Gandhi upon his visit to China in the December of 1988: “An ‘Asia’s Century’ is impossible without the rise of China and India. And a most genuine ‘Asia’s Century’ or ‘Asia-Pacific Century’ is testified only but the comprehensive development of China, India and their neighboring countries.”
It is fair to conclude that China-India relationship is destined to grow mature, if both countries stick to the ideal of equality, mutual trust, toleration, mutual reference, cooperation and shared progress. In a matter of fact, as two large countries with giant potential and growth momentum, China and India can together set an example of multi-folded significance. The exchange visits between political leaders of India and China will certainly herald a new high tide of bilateral cooperation, and a demonstration to the world of their diplomatic ideals of “peaceful rise” and “striving for shared interests in development”, finally embracing the arrival of an “Asia’s century”. The prospect is definitely a boost for China and India concerning their status and influence in the global system.
(The author works as the Director of the Centre for Strategy and International Studies, Chinese People’s Liberation Army University of International Relations)
配文：莫迪的“经济新政”Modi’s “New Economic Policies”
《环球》杂志特约撰稿/王海霞By Wang Haixia, Staff writer of Global
Modi’s victory in India’s parliamentary election was largely determined by a national expectation of a quick revitalization of domestic economy. One the eve of election in 2014, India was tormented by a long-term low ebb of domestic economy, and the sloppy fact only made Indian citizens disappointed and more craving for “an instant transformation”. At that point, India needed a strong, powerful leader to drag the country out of troughs. All being said, Modi became an ideal choice in their range of version.
Modi was born and raised in a family of business, and himself grew as an able, apt businessman. During his tenure of the Chief Minister of Gujarat, he made most of his talent in economic management, and tough personalities as well, to boost local economy and keep Gujarat outshining other states of India when the overall climate was so depressed. Also in that period, he gathered around him a bunch of passionate supporters. It is generally agreed that Modi is the very person India needed at the point, considering his talent in economic development, modernized horizon, ideal of openness and the essential leadership. Finally, Modi earned not only the support of common Indians, but also the backing of senior leaders from famous consortiums, such as Ratan Tata and Mukesh Amban.
After his inauguration of Indian Prime Minister, Modi had to fulfill his promise and boost national economy. Therefore, he implemented several measures to promote economic development, and steadily put into effect his “New Economic Policies”.
Firstly, he tried the best to ameliorate India’s business environment. Modi government lowered the entry barrier for foreign investments, and raised the highest scale of foreign direct investment in insurance and defense industries from 26% to 49%. The government also allowed foreign investors to have 100% share-holding in freight corridors, high-speed trains, connections in-between and other railway projects. Besides, GST (Goods and Service Tax) of national standard will be put into effect in April, 2016, as a method of optimizing current tax environment that is scattered and of huge burden. “Electronic Office” was introduced to boost efficiency of administrative affairs, and the concrete measures include online examination and approval system, and an official website of Ministry of Labor and Employment.
Secondly, the concept of “Make in India” was forged. The plan of “Make in India” was proposed by Modi in the September of 2014, as an umbrella project to develop labor-intensive manufacturing industry and to make India a global centre for manufacturing industry. The government also promised facilitation of examination and approval systems in a number of industries, complemented by some preferential policies, so as to attract private and foreign capitals.
Thirdly, Modi led a series of important reforms in energy industry. Modi government announced the relaxation of control over diesel price, and the elimination of diesel subsidy in the October of 2014. Meanwhile, the controlled price of natural gas was raised by 33.6%, so as to encourage exploitations of natural gas resources. The government further announced that private companies were allowed into the commercial exploitations of coal mine, therefore breaking the monopoly of state-owned companies in the processes of exploitations and sales.
Fourthly, a number of reforms in governmental institutions are conducted. In the January of 2015, Modi announced the inauguration of “National Institution for Transforming India”, so as to replace the rigid old version of “Plan Commission”. Modi chairs the new institution by himself, and its members include the Chief Ministers from all the states of India – making the interaction between central and local governments even more convenient.
Fifthly, Modi attached great importance to infrastructure constructions. According to the Union Budget of 2015-2016 released by Indian government, a total of 700 trillion rupee (around 11.3 billion US dollars) will be appropriated for the purpose of infrastructure constructions. Indian government also plans to invest 137 billion US dollars on railway constructions and other modernized projects. Furthermore, India also plans to build 5 “super large” projects of electric power, so as to increase power supplies and solve current energy crisis.
Telling from these “New Economic Policies”, Modi is trying to extend his efforts for economic development in Gujarat to a national level. As the Chief Minister of Gujarat, he also attached great importance to infrastructure constructions, worked on efficiencies of governmental institutions and simplified a number of examination and approval systems. He was not a bit hostile to foreign capitals, and squeezed enough room for the development of private economy. Also worthy of being noted is the high-degree autonomous right of the Chief Minister of Gujarat when Modi was in office. He could approve the use of land for large companies with as simple procedures as possible. For example, Ratan Tata, owner of Tata Motors Limited received a text message from Modi in 2008, saying that the land was already prepared for Tata limited and its suppliers. On hearing this, Ratan Tata made up a decision to move the factories that produced Nano (a small-sized automobile) from West Bengal to Gujarat.
Modi’s burden becomes heavier, of course, as he is now governing a country instead of a state. Now India boasts a tough, powerful government that the country has not seen for years, but Modi’s “New Economic Policies” cannot evade the obstructions from opposition parties and other state governments – a natural result of federalism and parliamentary democracy in India. Besides, economic reform certainly has to deal with the thwarting of various interest groups, whose core interests are hurt.
In spite of the difficulties, Modi and his government stay strong and determined in pushing on the reform plan. Modi is making a better future for India, in the unique manner he invented and persisted.