Journal : Journal Not Selected Date : Author : Tang Lu (reporter of Global from Mumbai),  Wang Haixia (Staff writer of Global from Beijing) and Song Dexing Page No. : NA
URL :  http://news.xinhuanet.com/globe/2015-05/22/c_134261972.html

China aids India with infrastructure, US aids India with high-tech, Japan aids India with high-speed train and manufacturing, Russia and Australia aids India with energy, Singapore aids India with urban construction and financial service, and France aids India with military equipment… In Modi’s mind, he conceives a chessboard .

5月14~16日,印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪对中国进行了他上任以来的首次访问。他先后到访西安、北京、上海,出席了一系列活动。

From May 14th to 16th, Narendra Modi made his first official visit to China since he inaugurated as new Indian Prime Minister. His 3-day visit includes a number of events in the cities of Xi’an, Beijing and Shanghai.

莫迪将西安作为访华首站有着多重意义。首先,习近平主席去年访问印度首站去了莫迪的家乡古吉拉特,而西安是习近平的家乡,莫迪这次回访,显示了两位领导人的友好互动;其次,西安也是中印友好源远流长的象征,中国唐代高僧玄奘就是到古吉拉特取经,然后把佛经带回中国,在西安传经;还有一点也值得注意,西安是丝绸之路的起点,西南线延伸至印度,莫迪访华首站来到西安,别有意味。

There are many reasons why Modi chose Xi’an as the first leg of his China visit. Firstly, Chinese President Xi Jinping, during his official trip to India last year, visited Gujarat, Modi’s hometown; and Xi’an happens to be the hometown of President Xi. Therefore, Modi’s return visit is interpreted as a friendly interaction between the two leaders. Secondly, Xi’an stands as a symbol of the long history of amity between China and India, as Xuan Zang,the famous monk in Tang Dynasty, went on a pilgrimage and finally arrived in Gujarat to receive the Buddhist scriptures,had disseminated them all over China right here in Xi’an after he returned to China and translated the scriptures. Another notable reason is that Xi’an is seen as the starting point of famous “Silk Road”, whose route runs southwestward and finally reached India. All said and done, Modi’s choice of India is of great significance.

身为古吉拉特人,莫迪身上继承了那种与生俱来的擅长做生意的本领。他担任印度总理后,随即启动“印度制造”计划,又提出建设100座“智慧城市”构想,并指示大力发展太阳能等战略基础行业。然而,莫迪清楚,要想把印度建设成为一流国家,只靠一己之力无法成事,必须吸引外援。

A native of Gujarat, Modi inherited from his ancestors the talent of doing business. Right after he inaugurated as Indian Prime Minister, he brought out the plan of “Make in India” immediately, followed by the concept of “Smart City”. Furthermore, Modi has also stressed development of industries with strategic foundations, such as solar power. He is convinced that it is impossible for India to build herself as a first-rate superpower in the world all by herself; therefore, “foreign aid” must be included.

如果把莫迪的外交政策比作一个车轮,那么其轴心就是经济增长与发展,辐条则是中国、美国、日本、俄罗斯、澳大利亚、新加坡、法国等。精明的莫迪根据这些国家的强项,分别赋予它们不同的角色:中国帮助印度发展基础设施,美国帮助印度发展高科技,日本帮助印度发展高铁及制造业,俄罗斯和澳大利亚帮助印度发展能源,新加坡帮助印度进行城市建设和推动金融服务,法国帮助印度推动军工生产……

If Modi’s foreign policies are compared to a wheel, the axis lies in India’s economic growth and development, and the spokes are named China, US, Japan, Russia, Australia, Singapore, France, etc. So smart Modi is, he confers different roles on these countries according to their respective strengths: China aids India with infrastructure, US aids India with high-tech, Japan aids India with high-speed train and manufacturing, Russia and Australia aids India with energy, Singapore aids India with urban construction and financial service, and France aids India with military equipment… In Modi’s mind, he conceives a chess board.

莫迪的生意,是一盘很大的棋。Modi’s business is done on achess board.

“莫迪正在放弃印度对中国的原有态度”

“Modi  abandons the stereotyped attitude India held about China”

启程访华前,莫迪开通了中国社交媒体新浪微博的账号,他特别提到,相信这次访问会为在广泛领域加强印中经济合作奠定基础,并希望与中国企业领袖分享印度能提供的机会。

Modi opened his official account on Sina Weibo – a Chinese social network – before he started his trip to China. Via Weibo, he mentioned his confidence that this visit would set tone for the extensive economic cooperation between the two countries, and his wish to discuss with Chinese business leaders the opportunities that could be availed of by India.

在莫迪眼里,中国是一个值得钦佩的国家。实际上,担任古吉拉特邦首席部长期间,莫迪就有过几次访华之旅。那时,美欧国家以“莫迪要对2001年在古吉拉特发生的种族仇杀事件负责”为由拒绝其入境,于是,他把目光投向中国。莫迪希望古吉拉特发展制造业,数年之后,这里成了“印度的广东”,而莫迪也凭借着其所创造的古吉拉特奇迹,在2014年一举成为印度总理。

China is a country worthy of admiration in Modi’s perception. As a matter of fact, Modi visited China for more than once when he worked as the Chief Minister of Gujarat. At that point, Modi was denied entrance by many European and American countries as “he was responsible for the racial vendetta in Gujarat in 2001”. Instead, he cast his eyes upon China. Modi made efforts in developing the manufacturing industry in Gujarat, and after several years, Gujarat became “India’s Guangdong”. The miracles Modi brought to Gujarat also earned him a seat as the Prime Minister of India in 2014.

莫迪就任总理以来一直在考虑与中国进行合作,也非常希望能够通过这次访华推动印度经济增长并吸引更多的中国投资。对莫迪来说,这项工作并不容易。面对国内强大的民族主义势力,他必须要在访华期间向中国明确阐述反映印度国家利益的立场,与此同时,还必须说服中国投资者相信,他希望两国保持良好关系,印度已经为中国投资者准备好一站式服务。

Ever since he inaugurated as Prime Minister, cooperation with China has been of high priority in Modi’s agenda. He also wished to boost India’s economy and bring in investments from China through this visit. But it was by no means easy for Modi. Pressurised by the nationalists in India, he also had to clarify and reiterate India’s standpoint of national interest when he was in China, and meanwhile, it was also his job to persuade Chinese investors that “he hoped to maintain a sound relationship between China and India” and that “India has prepared a one-stand service for them”.

过去十年中,当中国公司试图涉足印度电信和电力等关键领域时,印度政府总会面临强大的政治阻力。有的印度媒体也一直渲染,如果中国制造的设备被联入印度国家电网,可能对印度安全产生不利影响。莫迪执政后,尽管对印度吸引中国投资持保留意见的人仍在发出声音,但他却一直鼓励相关举措。

Over the past 10 years, Chinese companies would always be hindered drastically by Indian government, when they tried to step into the key industries such as telecom and electric power in India. India media has been selling the concept that if China-made equipment were to be connected with India’s national grid, it would pose serious threats to India’s national security. Since Modi inaugurated as Prime Minister, he has been giving green light to Chinese investments, although he cannot eliminate all at once the voices of those who “reserve opinions on Chinese investments in India”.

2014年印度举行议会选举时,莫迪做出了若干大胆承诺:100座“智慧城市”、6500万套廉价房、8500公里的国道、16座新港口、1620公里的内陆航道、1.5万公里的天然气管道、在5个邦发展大型太阳能项目……他希望中国公司积极参与这些项目,并利用舆论为中国参与这些项目铺路。印度战略分析家拉贾·莫汉说:“莫迪正在放弃印度对中国的原有态度。他认识到,如果安全机构对经济政策有否决权,印度就不可能与中国建立重要的经济关系。”

Modi made several bold promises in the parliamentary election of 2014: 100 “Smart Cities”, 65 million cheap housings, 8000 kilometers of national highways, 16 new harbors, 1620 kilometers of thoroughfares, 15 thousand kilometers of natural gas lines, and large-scale solar power programs in 5 states… He also expected Chinese companies to be involved in related projects, and used public opinion to pave the way for China to enter smoothly into these projects. Raja Mohan, an India strategy analyst said: “Modi is abandoning the stereotyped attitude India holds about China, as he becomes aware that any major economic tie with China is impossible if national security mechanisms have a veto over economic policies.”

此次访华期间,莫迪不仅亲自宣布了印度将向中国游客颁发电子签证的决定,还亲自见证了中国与印度签署21项总额超过220亿美元的经济合作协议,内容涉及可再生能源、码头贸易、金融与工业园区等多个范畴。

Also during his visit to China, Modi announced the decision that India will issue e-Visas to Chinese tourists. Adding to that were 21 agreements on economic cooperation, amounting to 22 billion US dollars. Those agreements covered the fields of recyclable energy, port trade, finance and industrial zones, etc.

在签字仪式上,莫迪向多家中国企业高管发出热情召唤:“让我们携手合作,致力于共同利益……印度的环境正在改变,现在印度已经准备好切实做事了……你们来印度吧,我们将会给你们提供机会,让你们在这里感觉越来越舒服。”

In the signing ceremony, Modi, with great enthusiasm, summoned the senior leaders from Chinese companies: “Let’s hold hands and make joint effort in mutual interest… The environment in India is changing, and the country is now ready to get down to some practical work… Come to India, and we will offer you golden opportunities and make you at home here.”

两场活动,在美国刮起招商旋风 Two events that brought whirlwinds to US

2014年9月,莫迪对美国进行了一次旋风般的访问。虽然很多国际问题观察家认为那是莫迪与美国总统奥巴马的首次战略拥抱,但对莫迪来说,他在美国的访问更着眼于经济,那是一次彻头彻尾的招商之旅。

In September 2014, Modi paid a “whirlwind” visit to US. Although many observers of international relations interpreted the visit as “the first strategic embrace between Modi and Obama, US President”, Modi himself attached greater importance to economic affairs- -the visit was actually a merchant’s tour downright, a plan for inviting US investments.

启程访美前夕,莫迪启动了“印度制造”大型主题造势活动。不同寻常的是,活动主场虽然是在新德里,却在许多国家的印度使领馆都策划了分会场,其目的就是向国际社会特别是美国投资者发出明确信息:请到印度来投资。

Even before he set off for US, Modi initiated a large-scale event prompting the notion of “Make in India”. Another notable feature of the events was that many embassies and consulates based in India hosted branch hall activities, echoing the main hall in New Delhi – those aspired to send clear signals to the international community (including and especially US): investments are welcome in India.

访美期间,莫迪举办了两场特别引人注目的活动。During his visit to US, Modi hosted two notable events.

一个是在纽约麦迪逊广场花园的演讲。在来自美国和加拿大的近两万名印度裔听众面前,莫迪自信地讲述了一个印度崛起的故事。“大家曾经认为我们只是弄蛇人的国度,我们的人民以前玩蛇,但现在我们玩‘鼠’,通过滑鼠(鼠标)让全世界运作。”

One was the speech he delivered in Madison Square Garden, attended by over 20 thousand Indian origin persons from US and Canada. Modi told with confidence a story of India’s rise of power. “The world would mistake India for a country of snake-charmers. Yes we used to play with snakes, but now we play with the ‘mouse’– roll the mouse, and make the world work.

在这场近一个小时的演讲中,莫迪很少看稿,特别是他用印地语讲话时,几乎都是即兴发言。他告诉听众,整个世界都在关注印度,而没有一个国家具备像印度这样的实力,印度会以“令人难以想像的高速度”发展,而他自己将会不懈努力,让印度成为梦想国度。

Modi seldom referred to notes in the one-hour speech. Especially when he spoke Hindi, the speech was virtually impromptu. He told his audience that India became the focus of the entire world, and no country over than India was possessed with such power. Furthermore, he promised that India would progress “in paces too quick to be imagined”, and vowed to make India “a dream country” through his consistent efforts.

这场演讲令印度裔十分感动,“莫迪正在打造一个我们好久都不曾看到的印度形象,那就是印度作为全球活跃大国的形象。”

The audience of India descent was deeply touched by Modi’s words: “He is trying to promote an image of India that we haven’t seen for long – India that stays as an active superpower on the international stage.”

其实,莫迪的演讲也是说给美国人听的,当天在场的有不少美国人,其中包括40名美国国会议员。

The speech was also made for the Americans. There were a number of American listeners among the audience, including 40 congressmen.

莫迪在美国的另一场重要活动是与十几位美国大公司领袖共进早餐。这些人包括谷歌执行董事长埃里克·施密特、IBM董事长兼CEO罗睿兰、百事公司董事长兼CEO卢英德、通用电气公司董事长兼CEO杰夫·伊梅尔特、高盛集团CEO劳尔德·贝兰克梵等。

Another major event was a breakfast meeting with over 10 senior leaders from US companies. Those invited to have breakfast with Prime Minister included Eric Schmidt (Executive Chairman of Google), Ginni Rometty (Chairwoman and CEO of IBM), Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi (Chairwoman and CEO of Pepsi), Jeffrey R.Immelt (Chairman and CEO of General Electric) and Lloyd Blankfein (Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs), etc.

卡特彼勒公司董事长兼CEO道格·奥伯赫尔曼也出席了早餐会。据奥伯赫尔曼透露,莫迪在早餐会上说,过去5年对印度人民、印度经济和全世界来说都是困难的时期,他承诺印度会做出改变。奥伯赫尔曼认为,莫迪讲话时非常认真,给人留下了深刻印象,十分令人信服。

Doug Oberhelman, Chairman and CEO of Caterpillar Inc., also attended the breakfast meeting. According to Oberhelman’s memories, Modi defined the past 5 years as “hard times for Indian people, Indian economy and the world as a whole”; therefore, he promised changes on behalf of India. Oberhelman also observed Modi’s serious tone in making those remarks, which only made his words more impressive and convincing.

莫迪在美国开展“早餐外交”,与这些大公司领袖会面,用他自己的话来说,就是为了邀请他们“更加积极地参与印度经济的增长和转型”。

And the purpose of his “breakfast diplomacy”– in Modi’s own words –was to invite the senior leaders from these large companies to “actively participate in the growth and transformation of Indian economy”.

莫迪访美期间还与奥巴马一起发表联合声明,承诺启动以发展资本市场和为基础设施建设筹资为主的印美投资倡议,推动机构投资者和企业增加投资,同时采取措施,把两国的贸易额从当前的约1000亿美元提高5倍。

Modi also announced a joint statement with US President Obama. Both sides promised to initiate a “Proposal for US Investments in India” with the development of capital market as the basis, and fundraising of infrastructure construction as the main body. The statement also aimed to increase investments from investors and companies, and elevate their bilateral trade volume from 100 billion to 500 billion US dollars thorough concrete measures.

3个多月后,奥巴马访问印度,与莫迪就美国向印度提供民用核能技术达成协议:两位领导人建立了一个联络小组,以推动落实两国2006年签署的民用核能合作协议,尽早实现美国在印度建造的核电站输送电力这一共同目标;印度将设立150亿卢比(约合14.6亿元人民币)的保险金库,为国际核反应商提供核事故责任保险,为美国企业进入印度扫清障碍。莫迪表示,民用核能合作协议是印美新型信任关系的核心环节,不仅创造出新的商业合作机会,还为印度使用清洁能源提供了更多选择。

Three months after Modi’s visit to US, President Obama paid an official visit to India in return. During this visit, Obama reached an agreement with Modi with on offering necessary technologies for nuclear power for civil use. The leaders of both countries also formed a contact group, so as to further push the 2006 US -India agreement on civilian nuclear power and to realize the aim that US transmits power through India-built nuclear plants as soon as possible. Besides, India would also set up an insurance pool of 15 billion rupee (around 14.6 billion RMB), to cover the compensation required in case of accidents caused by international nuclear reactors, and cleared last few obstacles for US companies to enter India. Modi saw the agreement on nuclear power of civil use as the core of new type mutual trust between US and India, which not only carved out new opportunities of business cooperation, but also offered more choices how India made use of clean energy.

此外,奥巴马还承诺向印度提供4亿美元低息贷款,用于帮助印度中小企业创业并促进两国经贸合作,美国还帮助印度建设维沙卡帕特南、阿拉哈巴德、阿杰梅尔3座“智慧城市”。

Obama also promised India of 400 million of soft loan, so as to help small and medium-sized companies and to boost the economic and trade cooperation between two countries. Furthermore, US would assist India with the constructions of three “Smart Cities”: Visakhapatnam, Allahabad and Ajmer.

美国布鲁金斯学会印度研究项目负责人唐维·马丹认为,正是莫迪的积极态度,让美国决定给美印关系“添一把火”。

Tanvi Madan, Director of the India Project in Brookings Institution, thought it was Modi’s positive attitude that drove US to “fuel the fire”of the US-Indian relationship.

为日本投资者大开方便之门 To Further Facilitate Japanese Investors

2014年八九月间,莫迪到访日本。尽管在外界看来这次访问中“双边关系进展不大”,但带着价值340亿美元的协议返回印度时,莫迪心满意足。对他来说,这次访问达到了预期目的。

Modi paid a visit to Japan in August and September of 2014. Although comments said India and Japan “made no concrete progress in bilateral relationship” during Modi’s visit, the Prime Minister did bring home a bunch of agreements amounting to 34 billion US dollars, wish-fulfilled. From his perspective, the trip to Japan was full of tremendous achievements.

此访中,莫迪使出浑身解数说服日本投资者。在东京,面对大约2000名听众,他在题为《从今以后的印度》的演讲会上多次提及“印度制造”,鼓励日本中小企业投资印度,“日本的中小企业如果来到印度,就将成长为大企业”。

During this visit, Modi spared no efforts in persuading Japanese investors. In Tokyo, he mentioned the concept of “Make in India” more than once in his speech entitled “Indian From Now On”, in face of around 2000 Japanese listeners. In the speech, he also encouraged small and medium-sized companies to invest in India: “Small and medium-sized companies in Japanese have chances to grow as large ones if they come to India.”

“如果将日本的勤劳和印度的优势结合起来,将创造巨大的奇迹。”在莫迪看来,印度拥有很多吸引日本投资者的优势:印度是一个拥有12亿人口的庞大市场,且65%的人口年龄在30岁以下;印度的劳动力兼具成本低和素质高的特点;印度的大学和专业学校能够提供人才和技术;日本企业还可以将印度作为面向周边国家和非洲的出口基地……

“When the diligence of Japanese people meets with Indian advantages, giant miracles will happen.”India is of great attraction to Japanese investors: an ample labor market of 1.2 billion people, 65% of which are under the age of 30; the labor force of India boasts lower cost and higher quality; Universities and vocational schools of India can provide multiple talents and technologies; Japanese companies can also make India as a base of import for her neighboring countries and Africa…

为了宣传印度作为“日本投资首选目的地”的价值,莫迪向日本投资者保证:“印度没有繁文缛节,只有红地毯。我们已经放松了很多规定……欢迎日本企业到印度。在创造商业环境方面,你们有什么需要尽管说,我们将会尽力满足。”

To further promote India’s value of “first choice of Japanese investments”, Modi made a promise to Japanese investors: “There is a ‘red-carpet’, rather than ‘red-tape’ here in India. Actually we have adjusted many regulations to facilitate Japanese companies’ entry to India. Any demands are welcomed as how to create a sound business environment, and we shall do our best to meet with them.”

莫迪对日本投资者的喊话并非空谈。回国后没多久,他便在总理办公室设立了一个日本投资特别办公室,为日本投资者大开方便之门,这个办公室还特意配备了会讲日语的官员。

Modi’s promise to Japanese investors was by no means an empty boast. Soon after he returned to India, he set up a special unit in the Prime Minister’s office, managing all Japanese investment-related affairs, and facilitating their contact with India. For the staff of the office, he appointed several officials who spoke Japanese.

面对莫迪的热情召唤,日本政府承诺,未来5年对印投资和在印日企数目翻倍,对印投资和资金支持总额达3.5万亿日元(约合350亿美元),尤其关注基建、交通、“智慧城市”、清洁能源、技能培训、食品加工和乡村发展等领域。

Modi’s passion was echoed by the promises of Japanese government. Japan is aiming to double her investment in India, and the number of Japanese companies in India as well in 5 years’ time. Furthermore, Japanese investment and financial aid to India will reach 3.5 trillion Yen (around 35 billion US dollars), and they will be used primarily for infrastructure, transportation, “Smart City”, clean energy, skill training, food processing and urban development, etc.

与此同时,日本政府也在向印度大力推销新干线技术,希望尽快完成孟买-艾哈迈达巴德500公里高速铁路可行性研究。今年2月,当有记者问“印度是不是很有可能引进日本新干线”时,印度负责铁道建设的官员回答“当然”,并表示莫迪对日本新干线“很感兴趣”。

Meanwhile, Japanese government is vigorously promoting the technologies of Shinkansen to India, and hopes to finish in the shortest term possible the feasibility studies of a high-speed railway between Mumbai and Ahmedabad whose speed reaches 500 km/h. In February, in answer to the question “Is India planning to import the technologies of Shinkansen”, an Indian official in charge of railway constructions gave a clear “Yes”, and he further mentioned that Modi himself was “very much interested” in Shinkansen.

能源危机?找“最好的朋友”帮忙Energy Crisis? Why Not Turn to “The Best Friend”

2014年12月,当俄罗斯总统普京携带着解决印度能源需求的一大笔订单来到新德里时,俄罗斯正因乌克兰问题遭受西方国家排挤,莫迪则给予普京最为隆重的欢迎。

In December 2014, when Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in New Delhi with a bunch of deals that could meet India’s energy needs, Russia was isolated by other Western countries because of her role in Ukraine problem. Modi, instead, received Putin with a grand ceremony.

俄罗斯官员这样形容普京与莫迪的关系,“莫迪与普京的关系很好。两个人都是自信的、有个人魅力的领导人,有强烈的民族主义情结,对自己的国家高瞻远瞩,并把国家利益放在心头。”

Russian officials describe the relationship between the two political leaders like this: “Modi and Putin maintained a sound relationship. They are both confident and charismatic political leaders with strong nationalistic sentiments, show great foresight for their respective countries, and put in their deepest hearts the core interests of their countries as always.”

同大多数印度人一样,莫迪对俄罗斯有着非常良好的印象。他在担任古吉拉特邦首席部长的13年里一直受美国制裁,其间曾多次前往俄罗斯。

Many Indians have a very good impression of Putin, and Modi shares their affections. During his 13-year tenure as the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Modi suffered from US sanctions, and turned to visit Russia for more than once.

去年7月赴巴西出席金砖国家峰会时,莫迪首次作为印度总理与普京见面,他不失时机地告诉普京印度人有多重视俄罗斯,“你在印度问一问小朋友,谁是印度最好的国际友人,他们都会说是俄罗斯。”据说,这番话令普京十分得意,而莫迪则趁势向普京保证印俄关系将一切照旧。

During the BRICS summit held in Brazil, in July of 2014, Modi met Putin for the first time since he assumed charge as Indian Prime Minister. He refused to miss any chance to tell Putin how much importance Indians have attached to Russia. “If you ask an Indian kid who is our best foreign friend, Russia will be the unanimous answer.” Putin, as reported, was treading on air in hearing that, and Modi took advantage of the moment to promise that nothing would change between India-Russian relationship.

莫迪眼里的印度与俄罗斯,除了是传统的友好国家,还有重要的能源供需关系。莫迪在发起“印度制造”倡议时,就已经敏锐地意识到,除非印度有足够的能源供制造业和交通部门用电,否则他的倡议不可能取得成功。

In Modi’s perception, not only is Russia a traditionally friendly country, she also meets India’s energy demands – which sounds more important. When delivering the proposal of “Make in India”, Modi had keenly observed the fact that the success of the plan would be impossible without ample energy supplies for departments of manufacturing and transportation.

事实上,迫在眉睫的能源问题,正在威胁印度建设现代经济体的能力。

As a matter of fact, the energy crisis which seems extremely urgent is now posing a serious threat to India’s capacity for building modern economy.

“如果发生能源危机,印度会找谁帮忙?是美国还是俄罗斯?”美国的两名智库人士曾经风趣地提出这样的问题。或许,关键时刻还是要靠自诩为“印度最好的朋友”的俄罗斯。虽然俄罗斯不能给予印度更多的投资,但它可以向印度提供能源,而这正是莫迪所期望的。

“Should energy crisis really occur in India, to whom would she turn for help? US or Russia?” Two research fellows from US think tanks once raised this seemingly sarcastic question. Chances are that India would pick Russia, whom she regards as “India’s best friend”. Although it is unlikely that Russia will augment her investments in India, she can still offer India with abundant energy – which is exactly what Modi desires.

去年普京访印期间,印度与俄罗斯签署了一系列重要协议。比如,俄罗斯从2015年起10年内为印度供应1000万吨原油,在未来20年内为印度建设12个反应堆,为库丹库拉姆核电站第三和第四个发电机组提供设备。这不仅能助推印度经济,对俄罗斯也是有益的,有助于俄改善自身经济状况。

During Putin’s official visit to India last year, Russia signed with India a series of important agreements. For example, Russia will provide India with 10 million tons of crude oil in the following 10 years, starting from 2015. Also reflected in the agreement are 12 nuclear reactors Russia will build for India in 20 years, and necessary equipment for the third and fourth electric generating set of Kudankulam Nuclear Plant. Those aids are not only conducive to Indian economy, but also beneficial for Russia herself as a method of meliorating her own domestic economy.

谋篇全球,取各国所长 Plan of a global composition, with the advantages of each country

能源方面,澳大利亚总理托尼·阿博特2014年9月访问印度时与莫迪签署了一项民用核能合作协议,澳大利亚原则上同意向印度出口核反应堆所需的铀燃料和相关技术。此前,作为全球第三大铀生产国,澳大利亚禁止向印度出口铀,原因是印度并未签署《核不扩散条约》。但莫迪成为总理后改变了这一局面。阿博特称,澳大利亚政府已经从印方获得“必要承诺”,印度只把从澳方进口的铀用于民用核能项目。

Also concerning energy: When Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott visited Indian in the September of 2014, he signed with Modi an agreement of cooperation concerning civil nuclear use. In principle, Australia consented to export to India the uranium fuel and related technologies used for nuclear reactors. Before that, Australia, as the world’s third largest source of uranium, prohibited any export of uranium to India because of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. However, Modi changed the situation after he inaugurated as Indian Prime Minister. Abbott pointed out that Australian government had received “necessary promises” from Indian side, as India would use uranium for civilian nuclear projects only.

莫迪曾承诺,将在印度建设100座“智慧城市”。在此方面,新加坡可以说是印度的重要合作伙伴。新加坡近期提出了“智慧国家2015”计划的升级版——“智慧国家2025”计划。新加坡外长尚穆根·贾古玛及总理公署部长易华仁到访印度时均表示,新加坡会帮助印度建造“智慧城市”。

Modi promised to build 100 “Smart Cities” in India, and he sees Singapore as major potential partner in this endeavor. Singapore recently announced the upgrading of the “Smart Nation 2015” project – namely, “Smart Nation 2025”. India heard from K. Shanmugam, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore, and S. Iswaran, Minister in Prime Minister’s Office of Singapore during their respective visits to India that Singapore would assist India in its plan of “Smart Cities”.

欧洲的法国和德国也是莫迪在“智慧城市”建设方面的合作伙伴。此外,这两个国家在可持续基础设施建设、可再生能源、高速及中高速铁路等领域也与印度有合作。引人关注的还有,莫迪4月访问法国时订购了36架“阵风”战斗机。据法国媒体报道,这一“世纪大单”价值数十亿美元。

France and Germany – the two European countries also become involved in Modi’s plan of building “Smart Cities”. Furthermore, their cooperation of India reaches out to the fields of sustainable infrastructure, recyclable energy, and high and medium-speed railways. Also worthy of our attention are 36 Dassault Rafales Modi ordered from France when he paid a visit in April of 2015. According to the reports of French media, Modi’s “Century Order” is worth up to 10 billion US dollars.

5月26日,是莫迪执政满一年的日子。这一年,他为了推销“印度制造”、吸引外资,马不停蹄地奔走各国,并且能够取各国所长,这体现了一个生意人的勤奋与精明。莫迪能否将印度经济带入一个崭新时代,还需时间来检验。但不管怎样,莫迪的生意,不会回头。

May 26th marks an anniversary of Modi’s inauguration as Indian Prime Minister. One year’s time sees his constant effort in selling the concept of “Make in India”, bringing in foreign investments, travelling around the world and borrowing as many advantages as possible from potential partners. One can see his diligence and intelligence as a businessman. Whether Modi can bring India to a new era remains to be testified by time, but his business tolerates no turning back in whatever circumstance.

配文:印度对华政策在传承中变革

India’s “China Policy” Witnesses Transformations Amid Tradition

莫迪政府的对华政策出现了明显的积极变化,那就是欢迎中国国家主席习近平提出的构建“新型大国关系”的理念,认为两国应重点致力于经济合作。

The China Policy of Modi’s government has seen notable changes toward the positive side. India is now ready to embrace the idea of “New-type Relationship Between Two Large Countries”, as proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping, and becomes aware that the economic cooperation should play the major role for both countries.

宋德星

By Song Dexing

作为印度新政府对华政策走向的风向标,莫迪的首次访华行程成为世界各国关注的焦点。从此访以及一年来的印度新外交可以看出,莫迪政府的对华政策兼具传承与变革色彩。

Seen as the weather vane of the “China Policy” held by new Indian government, Modi’s first official visit to China as Indian Prime Minister became the focus of countries worldwide. Judging from what was achieved during this visit, and India’s new diplomatic policies in recent one year, the “China Policy”practiced by Modi government is a combination of tradition and transformation.

传承,是指莫迪像其前任一样,重视发展对华关系。这不仅是基于现实利益的考量,也是基于战略的谋划。印度渴望在大国之间缔造一种稳定的战略平衡关系,以确保其顺利地实现和平崛起,在新世纪里真正成长为“有声有色的大国”,这也是印度宣称要推动建立一个合作的多极化世界的真正内涵。同时,印度也认识到,中国作为世界上最大的发展中国家,其战略目标是要成长为世界性的有着杰出地位的大国,同印度打交道,是这个战略的重要组成部分,故中国对印度来说既是机遇又是挑战。所以,在印度看来,至少在亚洲,其外交政策的首要追求便是塑造中印之间稳定的平衡关系。

Tradition is reflected in Modi’s emphasis in China-Indian relationship, started and persisted by his predecessors. This is a consideration of not only practical interests, but also strategic plot. India aspires to maintain a relationship of strategic balance between herself and other large countries, so as to facilitate her peaceful rise as a “large country with sound influence” in the new century. This is the true connotation of India’s proclamation of a “multi-poled world of cooperation”. Meanwhile, India is not unaware of the fact that China, as the largest developing country in the world, holds a strategic aim of growing as a large country with outstanding status worldwide. Her interactions with India, therefore, are crucial components to this entire strategy, as China provides both opportunities and challenges for India. From the perspective of India, at least in Asia, the top priority of her diplomatic policy lies in the shaping of a stable, balanced China-Indian relationship.

印度的政治精英们已普遍认识到,如今的中印关系已经超越双边范畴,具有全球和战略意义,需要从战略的高度长远谋划。正是基于这样的认识,莫迪相信,他对中国的访问不仅有助于建设务实与基础广泛的双边关系,而且必将促进亚洲的稳定、进步和繁荣。

Political elites in India also become aware that China-Indian relationship in the modern age has transcended the bilateral basis, and has developed a global strategic significance. Based on the situation, Modi was convinced that his visit to China was not only conducive to a bilateral relationship of pragmatic, extensive foundations, but also beneficial for the peace, progress and prosperity of Asia as a whole.

经济强人莫迪主政印度后,印度的外交政策在传承的基础上也展现出了一系列变化:第一,从以往的强调政治变为强调经济;第二,从理想主义变为现实主义,核心是追求印度崛起为世界大国;第三,从强调不结盟多边外交的重要性变为强调大国外交的重要性;第四,进一步抛弃印度反西方(反美国)的政治动机;第五,认为中国对印度来说至关重要。

After Modi, the “strong man” in economy became head of state in India, India’s foreign policies have displayed a series of changes while inheriting most of the traditions: Firstly, the emphasis was transferred from politics to economy; secondly, India shifts from an idealistic manner to realism, bearing in mind the ultimate goal of rising as world superpower; thirdly, India starts to give priority to relationship between large countries, instead of stressing multi-lateral diplomacy of nonalignment; fourthly, India further discards her political initiative of opposing to Western countries (especially US); fifthly, India admits that China is of vital importance to her.

正是在这样的大背景下,莫迪政府的对华政策出现了明显的积极变化,那就是欢迎中国国家主席习近平提出的构建“新型大国关系”的理念,认为两国应重点致力于经济合作。实际上,作为发展中大国,中印两国的首要任务都是发展经济、改善民生。为此,中印双方均强调,要推动中印关系同各自发展需求相结合,深化务实合作,提高合作水平。

In light of the overall background above-said, the China Policy of Modi’s government has seen notable changes toward the positive side. India is now ready to embrace the idea of “New-type Relationship Between Two Large Countries”, as proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping, and becomes aware that the economic cooperation should play the major role for both countries. As a matter of fact, the chief task lying before China and India – two large developing countries – is to develop domestic economy and enhance people’s livelihood. To reach this target, both countries stressed the demand that development of China and India must be jointly boosted, and they had to deepen their commitments and elevate the level of cooperation.

特别是中国政府提出并大力实施“一带一路”战略以来,印度看到了发展两国关系新的战略机遇——处于“一带一路”交汇之地的印度,是中国推进“一带一路”战略天然和重要的合作伙伴。可以说,莫迪此次访华,就是要通过加强务实合作,落实互利政策,推动两国经贸关系迈上新台阶。

Especially after the strategy of “One Belt, One Road” was proposed by Chinese government, India sees herein a new strategic opportunity for their bilateral relationship. The geographic location of India – right at cross of “One Belt” and “One Road”, determines the fact that India is not a natural, but also important partner in China’s strategy. Therefore, it is fair to conclude that Modi strove to strengthen pragmatic cooperation, implement win-win policies and push the economic and trade ties between China and India onto a new level via his visit.

应当看到,高层访问的一个重要功能就是:为两国关系向前迈进营造积极氛围。虽然莫迪此行还不能完全消除印度某些政治精英头脑中根深蒂固的对华战略猜疑,但即便是地缘政治等敏感问题,也不会成为影响两国关系的巨大障碍。

It is also clear that the visits between senior leaders also aim at promoting a positive environment for China-Indian relationship to march on. Although Modi could not expect to eliminate the strategic suspicions (and jealousies as well) of China that are so deeply-rooted in the minds of some “political elites”, all the sensitive issues such as geographic politics are unlikely to block the way between China and India.

莫迪曾表示:“我重申,西藏自治区是中华人民共和国领土的一部分,印方不允许藏人在印度从事反华政治活动。印方愿意同中方共同努力,管控好边界争议,加快推进边界问题谈判,早日找到解决方案。”

Modi said: “I would like to reiterate the fact that Tibet Autonomous Region is a part of People’s Republic of China. India tolerates no anti-China political activities conducted by Tibetans on the land of India. India is also ready to make joint effort with China to handle boundary disputes, and to find solutions as soon as possible via bilateral negotiations regarding these issues.”

莫迪政府明白,边界问题只是整个中印关系的一部分,而中印关系的地区和全球战略意义,足以消弭双方在这一问题上的分歧。不仅如此,推动中印关系的稳步发展,终将有助于边界问题的早日解决。

Modi government is clear that the disputed boundary is only a part of China-Indian relationship, and this issue is so easy to be overshadowed by the strategic significance of China-Indian relationship in Asia, and in the world at large. Besides, the stable and constant development of China-India relationship will finally result in a peaceful settlement of boundary issues in the shortest term possible.

莫迪访华期间,国家主席习近平赴家乡陕西西安迎接,与去年莫迪在其家乡古吉拉特招待习近平具有同样的标志性意义。那就是,同为正在复兴的文明古国,中印双方需要携手合作,维护好两国和发展中国家的利益,共同迎接“亚洲世纪”的到来。诚如邓小平1988年12月会见来访的印度总理拉·甘地时所言:“中印两国不发展起来就不是亚洲世纪。真正的亚太世纪或亚洲世纪,是要等到中国、印度和其他一些邻国发展起来才算到来。”

Chinese President Xi Jinping travelled afar to Xi’an – the capital of Shaanxi province, and his hometown as well – to greet Modi on his first leg of official visit to China. The fact only reminds us of the genuine intentions of Modi who received President Xi in Gujarat, his own hometown. The connotation is obvious – as two countries of ancient civilizations that are going on courses of revitalization, China and India need to join hands and defend the interests of developing countries, embracing the arrival of “Asia’s Century”. We may quote what Deng Xiaoping said to Rajiv Gandhi upon his visit to China in the December of 1988: “An ‘Asia’s Century’ is impossible without the rise of China and India. And a most genuine ‘Asia’s Century’ or ‘Asia-Pacific Century’ is testified only but the comprehensive development of China, India and their neighboring countries.”

可以相信,只要本着平等互信、包容互鉴、合作共赢的理念,中印关系必将日益走向成熟。实际上,作为最具潜力、发展势头最为强劲的两个大国,中印关系具有多重示范意义。莫迪访华与中印间掀起的新一轮合作高潮,就是要向全世界展现中印“和平崛起”和“谋求共同发展利益”等新的外交理念,促成“亚洲世纪”的到来,而这必将有助于增强中印两国在全球体系中的地位和影响力。

It is fair to conclude that China-India relationship is destined to grow mature, if both countries stick to the ideal of equality, mutual trust, toleration, mutual reference, cooperation and shared progress. In a matter of fact, as two large countries with giant potential and growth momentum, China and India can together set an example of multi-folded significance. The exchange visits between political leaders of India and China will certainly herald a new high tide of bilateral cooperation, and a demonstration to the world of their diplomatic ideals of “peaceful rise” and “striving for shared interests in development”, finally embracing the arrival of an “Asia’s century”. The prospect is definitely a boost for China and India concerning their status and influence in the global system.

(作者系中国人民解放军国际关系学院国际战略研究中心主任)

(The author works as the Director of the Centre for Strategy and International Studies, Chinese People’s Liberation Army University of International Relations)

配文:莫迪的“经济新政”Modi’s “New Economic Policies”

《环球》杂志特约撰稿/王海霞By Wang Haixia, Staff writer of Global

莫迪坐上总理宝座与印度国内对经济快速复苏的热切期望密不可分。2014年印度大选前夕,印度处于低增长时期,对于经济现状的失望使得民众“心急变革”,渴望出现一位强有力的领导人带领国家走出经济低谷。在这种背景下,莫迪进入了人们的视野。

Modi’s victory in India’s parliamentary election was largely determined by a national expectation of a quick revitalization of domestic economy. One the eve of election in 2014, India was tormented by a long-term low ebb of domestic economy, and the sloppy fact only made Indian citizens disappointed and more craving for “an instant transformation”. At that point, India needed a strong, powerful leader to drag the country out of troughs. All being said, Modi became an ideal choice in their range of version.

莫迪自幼受商贩家庭熏陶,是个谙熟经商的生意人。他担任古吉拉特邦首席部长期间,凭借出色的经济管理能力与强硬的个性,使当地经济发展在整体低迷的印度经济中一枝独秀,并赢得了一批充满激情的支持者。很多人认为,莫迪的经济管理能力、现代化视野、对外开放的理念和领导才能正是印度迫切需要的。除受到民众青睐外,莫迪还赢得了印度拉坦·塔塔和穆克什·阿巴尼等大财团领导人的支持。

Modi was born and raised in a family of business, and himself grew as an able, apt businessman. During his tenure of the Chief Minister of Gujarat, he made most of his talent in economic management, and tough personalities as well, to boost local economy and keep Gujarat outshining other states of India when the overall climate was so depressed. Also in that period, he gathered around him a bunch of passionate supporters. It is generally agreed that Modi is the very person India needed at the point, considering his talent in economic development, modernized horizon, ideal of openness and the essential leadership. Finally, Modi earned not only the support of common Indians, but also the backing of senior leaders from famous consortiums, such as Ratan Tata and Mukesh Amban.

为推动经济发展,给支持自己的选民一个满意答复,莫迪就任总理后,在国内采取多种措施促进经济发展,稳步推行“经济新政”。

After his inauguration of Indian Prime Minister, Modi had to fulfill his promise and boost national economy. Therefore, he implemented several measures to promote economic development, and steadily put into effect his “New Economic Policies”.

首先,努力改善经商环境。莫迪政府放宽外资准入限制,将保险业和国防工业外国直接投资上限由26%提高至49%,允许外资在货运走廊、高速列车、中间联通等铁路项目中持股比例达100%;计划从2016年4月起推广实施全国统一的商品及服务税(GST),以改善分散且赋税过高的税收环境;通过推出网上环境审批制度、设立劳动部管理网站等方式推进电子化办公,提高行政效率。

Firstly, he tried the best to ameliorate India’s business environment. Modi government lowered the entry barrier for foreign investments, and raised the highest scale of foreign direct investment in insurance and defense industries from 26% to 49%. The government also allowed foreign investors to have 100% share-holding in freight corridors, high-speed trains, connections in-between and other railway projects. Besides, GST (Goods and Service Tax) of national standard will be put into effect in April, 2016, as a method of optimizing current tax environment that is scattered and of huge burden. “Electronic Office” was introduced to boost efficiency of administrative affairs, and the concrete measures include online examination and approval system, and an official website of Ministry of Labor and Employment.

其次,打造“印度制造”。2014年9月,莫迪推出“印度制造”计划,发展劳动密集型制造业,试图将印度打造为全球制造业中心。政府承诺在多个行业简化审批程序并提供一切配套优惠政策,以吸引民间资本和外来资本。

Secondly, the concept of “Make in India” was forged. The plan of “Make in India” was proposed by Modi in the September of 2014, as an umbrella project to develop labor-intensive manufacturing industry and to make India a global centre for manufacturing industry. The government also promised facilitation of examination and approval systems in a number of industries, complemented by some preferential policies, so as to attract private and foreign capitals.

第三,推动能源领域重要改革。2014年10月,莫迪政府宣布放开柴油价格,取消柴油补贴,同时将国内天然气管制价格提高33.6%,以鼓励对天然气资源的开采。政府宣布允许私营企业参与煤矿商业开采,打破了国有煤炭公司开采和出售的垄断。

Thirdly, Modi led a series of important reforms in energy industry. Modi government announced the relaxation of control over diesel price, and the elimination of diesel subsidy in the October of 2014. Meanwhile, the controlled price of natural gas was raised by 33.6%, so as to encourage exploitations of natural gas resources. The government further announced that private companies were allowed into the commercial exploitations of coal mine, therefore breaking the monopoly of state-owned companies in the processes of exploitations and sales.

第四,推动政府机构改革。今年1月,莫迪政府宣布成立新机构“印度改革全国学会”,取代之前过于僵化的“计划委员会”。新机构由莫迪本人担任主席,成员包括各邦首席部长,这有利于与地方政府互动。

Fourthly, a number of reforms in governmental institutions are conducted. In the January of 2015, Modi announced the inauguration of “National Institution for Transforming India”, so as to replace the rigid old version of “Plan Commission”. Modi chairs the new institution by himself, and its members include the Chief Ministers from all the states of India – making the interaction between central and local governments even more convenient.

第五,重视基础设施建设。根据印度政府发布的2015~2016财年预算案,印政府将增加7000亿卢比(约合113亿美元)基础设施建设投资;印政府计划今后5年投资约1370亿美元用于铁路基础设施建设及现代化项目建设;印度还将建设5个“超大型”电力项目,增加电力供应,解决能源危机。

Fifthly, Modi attached great importance to infrastructure constructions. According to the Union Budget of 2015-2016 released by Indian government, a total of 700 trillion rupee (around 11.3 billion US dollars) will be appropriated for the purpose of infrastructure constructions. Indian government also plans to invest 137 billion US dollars on railway constructions and other modernized projects. Furthermore, India also plans to build 5 “super large” projects of electric power, so as to increase power supplies and solve current energy crisis.

从这些“经济新政”可以看出,莫迪试图延续曾在古吉拉特邦为经济发展所作出的努力。莫迪任古邦首席部长期间,重视发展基础设施建设,注重提高政府工作效率和简化审批程序,不仇视外国资本,愿意为私有经济发展提供充裕空间。但值得注意的是,在古邦,首席部长莫迪拥有高度自主权,他能为大型企业迅速批出地块,审批程序相对简单。举个例子,2008年,印度塔塔汽车公司老板拉坦·塔塔收到了莫迪的短信,后者表示会向塔塔公司及其供应商提供准备就绪的厂房地块,塔塔从而决定把旗下制造小型汽车Nano的厂房从西孟加拉邦转移到古吉拉特邦。

Telling from these “New Economic Policies”, Modi is trying to extend his efforts for economic development in Gujarat to a national level. As the Chief Minister of Gujarat, he also attached great importance to infrastructure constructions, worked on efficiencies of governmental institutions and simplified a number of examination and approval systems. He was not a bit hostile to foreign capitals, and squeezed enough room for the development of private economy. Also worthy of being noted is the high-degree autonomous right of the Chief Minister of Gujarat when Modi was in office. He could approve the use of land for large companies with as simple procedures as possible. For example, Ratan Tata, owner of Tata Motors Limited received a text message from Modi in 2008, saying that the land was already prepared for Tata limited and its suppliers. On hearing this, Ratan Tata made up a decision to move the factories that produced Nano (a small-sized automobile) from West Bengal to Gujarat.

就印度全国而言,莫迪的经济管理工作无疑要艰难许多。虽然印度目前拥有数年来最强势的政府,但因实行联邦制和议会民主制,莫迪的多个“经济新政”要面临来自反对党和各邦的阻力,经济改革也必然因触动各种集团利益受到阻挠。

Modi’s burden becomes heavier, of course, as he is now governing a country instead of a state. Now India boasts a tough, powerful government that the country has not seen for years, but Modi’s “New Economic Policies” cannot evade the obstructions from opposition parties and other state governments – a natural result of federalism and parliamentary democracy in India. Besides, economic reform certainly has to deal with the thwarting of various interest groups, whose core interests are hurt.

但是,莫迪政府继续推行改革的决心是坚定的。总理莫迪依然会按照自己的方式,努力打造印度的美好未来。

In spite of the difficulties, Modi and his government stay strong and determined in pushing on the reform plan. Modi is making a better future for India, in the unique manner he invented and persisted.

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