Journal : Global Times (Chinese) Date : Author : - Page No. : NA
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“莫迪效应”促印度掀改革声浪 在国际立强大气场

“The Modi Effect”: Promotes Indian Reforms and Projects A Powerful International Image

【环球时报驻印度特派记者 吕鹏飞 环球时报驻英国美国特约记者 纪双城 丁雨晴 柳玉鹏】去年5月26日,莫迪宣誓就任印度总理。就职一年,莫迪成为同期内出访最多的世界领导人之一,不仅加强了印度对外关系,还扮演着“印度推销员”的角色。在治理印度的努力中,莫迪赢得不少掌声,也受到很多指责和质疑。预期的印度经济增速并不能掩盖莫迪政府面临的改革阻力和印度国内的种种矛盾。莫迪的改革正处于十字路口。

Within a year after Modi came to power as the India Prime Minister on May 26th, 2014, he has positioned himself as one of the world leaders who made the most frequent foreign visits in 2014. He has improved India’s foreign relations, meanwhile playing the role of a “salesman” for India. Regarding his recent efforts to develop India’s image, Modi has won enormous applauses, but he is also facing a lot of accusations and questions. Expectations for India’s economic growth could not eclipse the challenges faced by the Modi government in terms of internal conflicts and reform resistance. Modi finds his movement to reform India at crossroads.

莫迪正昏睡中的印度振起来

Modi is awakening a “sleeping” India

如果从各种数据看,印度总理莫迪执政一年来有可圈可点之处。一年前,印度通货膨胀率为9%,经济增速约为5%,如今通货膨胀率已下降至5%,国际货币基金组织预测印度今年的经济增长将达到7.5%,这意味着印度的经济增速将超越中国

According to various sources, the overall performance of the Indian Prime Minister’s government is commendable. One year ago, India’s inflation rate and economic growth were at 9% and 5% respectively. Now its inflation rate has fallen to 5% and India’s economic growth forecasted by IMF this year would reach 7.5%, which means India’s economic growth rate would exceed that of  China.

如果只从硬件建设来看,过去一年印度改观并不大,但从软环境方面观察,印度确实有些许显著变化,特别是印度有了一个强有力的中央政府和强势领导人。印度前总理辛格以学者形象示人,而莫迪风格迥然不同。现在,总理办公室成为印度的决策中心,莫迪直接与秘书对话,以往决策瘫痪的情况已得到改观。

In terms of internal structure and workflow, India didn’t make big changes in the past year; but India did make a subtle change in its image, especially with a powerful central government and a strong leader. India’s former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh portrayed an image of scholar, while Modi’s image is totally different. Now, the Prime Minister’s Office has turned into India’s decision-making center, with direct dialogues from Modi to the secretaries. The past situation of decision-making paralysis has been changed for sure.

印度中国企业商会秘书长黎剑在印度已耕耘10年之久,他认为:“莫迪政府上台后,做了很多上届政府推不动或者说不愿意推动的改革。我们作为最前线的商业服务机构,跟印度政府、印度行业和印度议会打交道都很多,因此感受也最深。”黎剑认为,以往印度各邦都有自己的税制,地方保护严重,阻碍商品流通和商业发展,莫迪上台后坚定推动统一税制的出台。莫迪政府不仅强力推动“印度制造”,还进一步开放外资准入的领域和占股比例,有的领域已允许100%的外国投资。

Secretory-general of China Chamber of Commerce in India, Li Jian, who has worked in India for ten years, said, “Modi’s government has implemented many reforms which the former government was unable to push or unwilling to push. As frontline commercial service agencies, we often deal with the Indian government, Indian industries and the Indian Parliament, and therefore we have felt this difference the most.” Li Jian also said in the past, different states in India had different tax systems, which led to local resistance for commodity circulation and business development. However, now a unified tax system is being firmly pushed by Modi.  Modi’s government is not only promoting the “Make In India” policy, but also opening up industry restrictions and proportions of total shares for foreign capital, with some industries allowing 100% foreign capital investment.

全球推销印度是莫迪最大          Global Promotion of India is Modi’s Biggest Highlight

莫迪一年来还成为国际舞台上的主要角色。过去一年,莫迪出访近20个国家,为此,新加坡《海峡时报》说“莫迪疾风骤雨般的访问使全世界成为他的舞台”。值得一提的是,对华关系是莫迪绕不开的重点。新政府上台后即宣布要加强在边界地区的基础设施建设。目前来看,莫迪上台后中印关系表现出更为复杂的一面。莫迪访华时极力推介印度,呼吁中国企业前去投资。

Modi has also become a major role on the international stage. Over the past year, Modi has visited nearly 20 countries. “Straits Times” of Singapore commented that a flurry of visits has made the entire world as Modi’s stage.” It is worth mentioning that the Sino-Indian relations is an unavoidable focus for Modi. When he visits China, he strongly promotes India and invites China’s enterprises to invest in India.

 莫迪摆脱烦恼需要时间   It will take time for Modi to get rid of troubles

莫迪的外交旋风虽然精彩,但回到国内他不得不面对那些令人焦头烂额的问题,当前最大也是无法回避的问题就是征地法改革,以改变过去基础设施建设用地或工业用地的征地久拖不决、严重拖累经济社会发展的局面。在印度人民党控制的人民院,这一法案顺利通过,但在国大党主导的联邦院却遭到强力阻击。国大党指责人民党“亲近富人、亲近企业”,在农村人口占全国2/3的印度,人民党被贴上这样的标签意味着会失去农民的支持。

Although Modi’s diplomatic whirlwind has attracted much attention, he still needs to go back home to deal with the troubles brewing in his backyard. The biggest unavoidable problem at present is the reform of land requisition law, which is intended to solve problems of infrastructure construction delays and industry land requisition delays, which have seriously plagued India’s economic and social development. This law was successfully passed in Lok Sabha controlled by BJP, but is strongly opposed in the Rajya Sabha by the Indian Congress Party. The congress party accuses BJP as “close to the rich, close to enterprises.” In a country with two-thirds of rural population, such kind of label to BJP will make Modi to lose the support of farmers.

中国南亚学会常务理事钱峰告诉《环球时报》记者,莫迪执政一周年来对印度的最大影响莫过于人心的变化。过去,印度人特别是精英阶层一直在自傲和自卑的矛盾心态中游走,一方面想打造“最大民主国家”的形象,一方面又担心印度会在日益激烈的国际竞争中被淘汰。钱峰认为,莫迪的出现,以其大力推崇发展、决策硬朗果断的鲜明个性,不仅刷新了世界对印度政治人物的陈旧观感,更唤醒许多印度人内心的国家认同感。

Qian Feng, Executive Director of China South Asian Association, told the reporter of “Global Times” that, Modi’s greatest influence to India in the past year is the change in people’s hearts. In the past, Indians, especially the elite class, always walked in a contradictory way between superiority and inferiority. On one hand, they wanted to create an image of “the biggest democratic country”, and on the other hand, they worried India would fall behind in the increasingly competitive international economy. Modi’s emergence, with his pursuit for development and decisive personality, not only refreshes the world’s old feelings for India, but also awakens the sense of nationalism among the Indians.

小到带头扫街改变城市卫生状况,大到抛出一系列为发展松绑的改革政策,“说干就干”的莫迪确实让越来越多的印度人领略到多少年没有过的施政效率,觉得这届政府有希望打造出一个截然不同的印度。但钱峰认为,许多困扰印度的问题短期不可能得到大的改观,莫迪一年的政绩也无法说明什么,他给印度带来的更多是信心。

From small actions like cleaning the streets to improving the city sanitary conditions to big moves such as reforming policies for development, Modi’s “action without delay” style has recalled more and more Indians’ long lost memories on administrative inefficiency and made them to believe this government would create a brand new India. However, Qian Feng believes that many troublesome problems would not be resolved in a short term, and Modi’s achievements in the past year don’t demonstrate anything. What he brings to India is confidence for the future ahead.

 

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