2015-12-21 10:55:57 来源：参考消息网 责任编辑：朱方雨 2015-12-21 10:55:57 Source: Reference News Network; Editor: Zhu Fangyu
Core tip: Chinese Ambassador to India, Le Yucheng said that foreign countries should not intervene in these issues; doing so will worsen the situation. He further said that China will continue to make efforts to maintain peace and tranquility in this region and in the common sea area.
Reference News Network report dated December 21st – Reports in the Indian media have suggested that China has warned foreign countries not to interfere in the South China Sea dispute. Viet Nam, on the other hand, is clearly blaming Beijing for triggering a “dangerous” maritime conflict in the region.
Based on reports published in the online version of the Indian “Deccan Herald” newspaper on 20th December, China’s Ambassador to India, Le Yucheng said that foreign countries should not intervene in these issues; doing so will worsen the situation. These remarks were made at the Deccan Herald “The Asia Pacific Century: Relations between India and the Great Powers” seminar, that was held in India on the 19th.
The report said that Ambassador Le Yucheng suggested that the United States and India are going a step further to get militarily entangled in the South China Sea dispute. He said that the foreign countries are making a show of force and this saber- rattling is not conducive to the security of the region. He further added that China will continue to take efforts to maintain peace and tranquility in this region and the common sea area.
Although the Indian Navy has said in the past that they want to send warships to the troubled waters in order to protect the Indian assets located there; what actually annoyed and angered Beijing was one of the Obama administration’s initiatives. In October, the USS Lassen entered the sea near one of Beijing’s man- made islands in the Spratly Archipelago (i.e. our Nansha Islands – note by this website).
Ambassador Le Yucheng said that these islands were recovered from Japan after the Second World War. Right until the year 1970, when the discoveries of oil and gas deposits were made, not a single country had made territorial claims to this area.
The report further quoted the Vietnamese ambassador to India, Ton Sinh Thanh, who said that Viet Nam has sufficient historical evidence and legal basis to affirm its sovereignty over these islands. This is because, since the 17th Century, these islands have been owned by Viet Nam and she has been continuously and peacefully controlling them. Right till the 17th century, no country had ever made sovereign claims on these islands.
Ton Sinh Thanh said: “At present, we are facing a very complex and even dangerous situation in the East Sea (Called the South China Sea in China – note by this website) because of the accelerated pace of large-scale reclamation and construction of artificial islands in this maritime region. People are raising concerns about the pace and scale of militarization in the maritime area as it may possibly lead to a renewed arms race in the region.”
Ambassador Ton Sinh Thanh further added that the conflict in the South China Sea is not only a threat to maritime security, safety and freedom of navigation, but is also causing a continued decline in the strategic trust between countries. It will have serious and long term impacts on peace, security, development and cooperation in the Indo- Asia Pacific region.
In addition, according to a report filed in the website of “The Hindu” newspaper on 20th December, Chinese Ambassador to India, Le Yucheng said, on the 19th, that the tripartite naval exercises named “Malabar” which India has conducted with Japan and the United States should not bring about damage to the stability of the seas surrounding China.
In a break between events while participating in a media forum in New Delhi on the 17th, he said that India should ensure that her initiatives such as these three party maritime arrangements and her defense related arrangements with other countries is conducive to peace and stability in the Asia Pacific region. Earlier, in a speech at this event, Ambassador Le Yucheng said that China’s maritime border in the South China Sea is legal and that the military displays of power by other countries will not be conducive to maintaining peace and stability in the Asia Pacific region.
The report also said that Ambassador Le Yucheng refuted the worries of some people that China could use its territory and maritime claims to impede the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea. He said that China’s maritime claims are incontestable.
2015-12-21 10:55:57 来源：参考消息网 责任编辑：朱方雨
【延伸阅读】港报：南海情势因美印插足更趋复杂[Extended reading] Hong Kong: Situation in the South China Sea turns more complex due to Indian and American intervention
Reference News Network report dated December 11th Indian media quoted the words of the country’s Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral D.K. Joshi and reported that although India does not have direct sovereignty over the South China Sea, she has concerns over the “freedom of navigation” in the South China Sea. If “the situation so demands and when it relates to the interests of the nation, India will go there and we have already started preparing for such an eventuality.”
Hong Kong’s “Ming Pao” newspaper, in an article dated 9th December, said that the US Secretary of Defense, Leon Panetta, paid a visit to India in June this year and made a point blank assertion that the United States can sell advanced fighter aircraft and combat helicopters to India. Panetta even openly pointed out that India plays a “key role” in the US’ Asia strategy and boldly asserted that India and the United States should deepen co-operation in the fields of defense and security.
The article further said that the sovereignty dispute over the South China Sea is mainly because of the United States feverishly asserting that it has relevant interests there. The rough and rugged behavior of the Philippines in the dispute over Huangyan Island is again because of the backing of the United States. The Indian Navy Chief Adm. Joshi’s talk of “will go there when the situation so demands…” is with regard to Viet Nam, whichhas also entered the South China Sea dispute.
At present, India is the South China Sea to provide assistance to Viet Nam for prospecting oil and gas fields. It has previously been reported that the Vietnamese oil exploration optic fiber cables that were cut by the Chinese surveillance ships, earlier in the South China Sea off the Vietnamese coast, was located in the operating zone of an Indian state owned oil and gas company. If the three elements – Adm. Joshi’s bold assertion, Vietnamese interests and the Indian company’s prospecting of oil and gas in the South China Sea – are put together, the conclusion is self-evident: the hard and undeniable fact is that the South China Sea dispute has one more non-regional participant – India.
The article pointed out that the situation in the South China Sea is more complex than the East China Sea. The East China Sea has only three belligerents – China, Japan and the United States; the South China Sea, on the other hand, has the Philippines, Viet Nam, the United States, Japan and India all over it. China has always supported bilateral meetings to resolve territorial disputes. It can do so in the East China Sea issue; but in the South Sea dispute, China’s opponents are inclined towards a multilateral resolution. This is clearly not what China’s expectations are. The difficulties in the smooth resolution of the South China Sea sovereignty disputes are a lot larger as compared to those in the East China Sea Diaoyu Islands wrangle.
In an article dated 10th December, Hong Kong’s “Ming Pao” newspaper quoted a speech by the US state department’s under secretary of state for economic growth, Robert Hormats, recently in Hong Kong. Hormats passed on an important message: “The United States will continue her economic engagement with the Asia Pacific region in the future and will take efforts to promote the implementation of the American strategy of “Rebalancing”.
There are two particularly noteworthy points in Hormats’ speech: one is that the Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation forum (APEC) is gradually developing as a rich forum for constructive exchange and that the United States looks forward to work in close partnership with the 2013 APEC rotating president, Indonesia; the second is that America hopes to promote the establishment of closer ties between India and the Southeast Asian nations.
The article points out that the intention of the United States is to strengthen and dance with the two “Ins” (i.e. India and Indonesia). In 2013, Indonesia will hold the rotating presidency of APEC and it would be of great significance if the US can get it to join the Allied camp. As for India, the United States has already succeeded in drawing Japan into the coalition. Once India is also drawn in, it will greatly increase the pressure on China.
2015-12-21 10:55:57 来源：参考消息网 责任编辑：朱方雨
【延伸阅读】印媒：越南在同中国的南海争端中寻求印度支持[Extended reading] Indian media: Viet Nam to seek the support of India in the dispute with China over the South China Sea
Picture: The Chinese Navy’s East China Sea Fleet conducting complex underwater acoustic environment shooting war maneuvers in an unidentified region of the South China Sea. Drills conducted on September 26th were in line with the Naval Force’s annual training plans.
Reference News Network report dated October 28th – Reports in the foreign media quoted Indian media reports dated 27th that the Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung has sought the support of India against China in the South China Sea dispute. Viet Nam seeks to strengthen relations with India whenever there is deterioration in their bilateral relationship with China.
According to a report dated October 28th in the Broadcasting British Corporation’s website Prime Minister Nguyen is currently in India on a two day official visit. He will meet with India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday. According to the details made available to the press, the talks will focus on strengthening of the relations between the two countries. Both Viet Nam and India have territorial disputes with China.
In the South China Sea, Beijing has territorial disputes with several South-East Asian countries. Viet Nam, in particular, opposes China’s attempts to build air fields and military bases in the South China Sea’s islands and reefs. These are being built by Beijing in order to strengthen its domination over the South China Sea.
Prime Minister Nguyen said in an interview with an Indian newspaper that Viet Nam hopes that India, the main regional states and the world’s major powers would provide active support to the concerned parties to resolve the dispute peacefully.
In May, bilateral relations between China and Viet Nam reached their lowest point. This trough in the relationship was caused when China forcefully erected a deep sea drilling platform in the disputed waters near the Paracel Islands, causing major anti Chinese protests in Viet Nam.
Nguyen Tan Dung also told reporters in India that he will continue to allow ships of other countries, including those of India, to visit Viet Nam. A month ago, when an Indian naval vessel entered the South China Sea next to Viet Nam, China asked this ship to leave the area by insisting that these waters were a part of Chinese territory.
China has sovereignty claims on almost all of the South China Sea, which, other than being an important international shipping lane, is also home to huge deposits of oil and gas resources. South East Asian countries including Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Viet Nam and others claim sovereignty over different parts of the South China Sea region.
India and Viet Nam are identical to each other, given the fact that they share a long ranging border dispute with China. Both sides accuse China’s armed forces of crossing the border and intruding into their territory. During the Chinese leader’s visit to India last month, hundreds of Chinese troops were accused of entering into the territory which India claims to have sovereignty over and the two sides faced each other in a tense stalemate.
2015-12-21 10:55:57 来源：参考消息网 责任编辑：朱方雨
【延伸阅读】美媒：印担忧中国控制南海后将力量投向印度洋[Extended reading] US media: India concerned that China’s control of the South China Sea will lead to it projecting power in the Indian Ocean.
Reference News Network report dated July 6th – An article titled “Impact of China’s maritime policy on India” was published in an American foreign policy focused research program website on the edition dated July 1st. The passage pointed out that, in recent months, media attention has been drawn to two stretches of waters. A large number of news reports have drawn attention to the Chinese maritime claims of sovereignty on the sea waters bordering her Eastern and South eastern shores.
In November 2013, Beijing announced its plans for the creation of an East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone. This identification zone has a partial overlap with the air defense identification zones of Japan and South Korea. As a matter of fact, Japan and other neighboring countries have, over a long period of time, been increasingly uneasy about China’s growing power.
Chart: Schematic map of the proposed Air Defense Identification Zone in the East China Sea.
The article said that China has not designated an Air Defense Identification Zone in the South China Sea, but has made sovereignty claims over the important islands, in fact, the entire maritime region of the South China Sea. This action has triggered a fierce conflict with many more countries because this section of the sea contains some of the world’s most important merchant shipping lanes. In addition, along with the East China Sea, the seabed of the South China Sea is also rich in oil and natural gas, the extraction of which is a long cherished dream of the governments of China (and the other countries) in the region.
China asserts its sovereignty over almost the entire area of the South China Sea and has essentially established control over many of the large and small islands and islets including the Spratly and the Paracel Island groups. More importantly, by exercising jurisdiction over these island groups, China claims control over the exclusive economic zone within 200 miles around them, according to the provision of the “United Nations Convention on the law of the sea”.
According to this Convention, the signatory states have a right to the exploitation of resources on the seabed (such as oil and natural gas that is said to be contained under the seabed in the South China Sea) and all kinds of marine life. South China Sea, like the East China Sea is especially known to be rich in fishery resources. The United States is a signatory to this important treaty, but its Senate has not yet approved the Convention.
The article said that so long as China can control the transportation of all commodities (by controlling the shipping lanes) in the South China Sea and the development of the resources there, it will strengthen its dominant position in the Pacific Ocean. Beyond the Pacific Ocean, the control of the South China Sea will allow Beijing to project its power into the Indian Ocean. It can cross the Malacca strait between Malaysia and Sumatra, Indonesia and enter into the Indian Ocean. Therefore, this section of the maritime area is known as “the throat of the Western Pacific and the India Oceans”. This will project China’s strength to the backyard of India and hence is particularly alarming to New Delhi.
The article said that New Delhi considered the two aspects of trade and resources while framing a response to China’s sovereignty claims. This argument was also supported by its neighbors including Japan and the ASEAN countries. Trade between India and the ASEAN countries reached a sum of 79 billion US dollars in the year 2012. Moreover, more than half of India’s trade with the Asia Pacific region has to pass through the South China Sea. Therefore, the freedom of navigation is of utmost importance for regional and international trade and to facilitate the acquisition of oil and natural gas that are crucial for India’s development.
Picture: This is the upright version of the map of the People’s Republic of China as on June 23rd. Photograph by: Xinhua News Agency. Reporter: Bai Yu
In fact, energy resources are extremely crucial for the development of India. Hence, in the year 2011, the Indian state owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation established a partnership with Viet Nam for joint exploitation of oil and gas in the seabed along the Viet Nam coast of the South China Sea. By doing this, New Delhi chose to ignore the warnings that the Chinese had given against indulging in such types of exploration. If China can enter the backyard of India, then why should India not do the same in the South China Sea? Viet Nam, of course, is delighted with this move of India that also reflects its growing aspirations to establish for itself, a regional power (and ultimately a global power) status.
The article states that the main point of all these contentions is probably that the United States, as a part of its Turn to Asia policy, is encouraging Viet Nam (and tacitly conniving with India) to challenge the Chinese.
The article also said that there is another country that holds great significance for people to understand the various relations that exist in the Asia Pacific region. This country has not been mentioned in the previous discussion, but in order to understand the evolution of the political and economic development of the Asia Pacific region, it would be essential to understand the relationship of the Asia Pacific with this power. This country in none other than Russia. (Compiled by He Jin’e.)
2015-12-21 10:55:57 来源：参考消息网 责任编辑：朱方雨
【延伸阅读】印媒：越南兜售南海油气田让印度为难[Extended reading] Indian media: Vietnamese sale of the South China Sea oil and gas fields to bring embarrassment to India
Reference News Network report dated November 20th – Sections of Foreign media reported that Viet Nam appreciates the “constructive role” played by India in the disputed areas of the South China Sea despite China’s opposition to India’s involvement in the South China Sea conflict.
According to a report filed in the online edition of India’s “Economic times” newspaper on November 18th, the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, Nguyen Phu Trong, also stressed that the a long term solution should be sought according to international law, especially the “The United Nations Convention on the law of the sea” passed in 1982. Nguyen Phu Trong arrived in New Delhi on the 19th and began a four day official visit to India.
The General Secretary was invited to visit India by the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh. He will meet with the host country’s leaders and hold discussions on important bilateral and regional issues which may involve China and the South China Sea “sovereignty” disputes with her neighboring countries.
Nguyen Phu Trong said: I believe that peace, stability and maritime security and collaboration in the East Sea represent the core interests of the countries in and outside the region. We highly appreciate the constructive position of India on this subject.”
The report mentioned that despite China’s opposition to India’s prospecting of oil fields in the South China Sea, Viet Nam has consistently claimed that India has the right to do so because the operations are being conducted in Viet Nam’s “Exclusive economic zone”.
Moreover, according to a report dated November 18th in the Indian “Calcutta Telegraph” newspaper website, is was reported that even as India was preparing to pull out of an offshore oil field in the South China Sea, Viet Nam started hawking new oil and gas fields to India. Hanoi was hoping that the presence of important nations in the disputed area would help contain China’s increasingly assertive territorial claims.
Senior officials of this Communist state said that, Viet Nam hopes that India agrees to its proposal of exploration of petroleum products in the new offshore oil and gas fields and in the establishment of a refinery in joint co-operation between the two countries. Reports said that, Nguyen Phu Trong will seek increased Indian participation in the Vietnamese oil and gas sector when he meets with the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh.
Having reaped almost no harvests in the seven years of exploration in the area, there is a very good probability that the Indian Oil and Natural Gas Corporation overseas investment subsidiary company, ONGC Videsh Ltd, shall withdraw from the No. 128 oil and gas block project in the eastern coast of Viet Nam in May next year, officials said.
An official said: “But we are currently looking for new opportunities. These include exploration; include oil refineries and other areas of downstream co-operation.”
Reports point out that the visits of Viet Nam’s senior officials happen at a time when the country seeks to expand its co-operation with India, Japan and Russia to respond to pressure from China. However, Viet Nam’s most urgent need is to gain international assistance in the South China Sea, and this includes Indian support. Viet Nam believes that the contracts, signed for oil and gas fields located in the disputed region, with companies from India, Russia and Japan can play the role of a deterrent to China.
From the Indian perspective, the stakes involved are much more complex. As the company cannot locate oil and gas resources, ONGC Videsh Ltd has given up plans to invest a sum of 68 million US Dollars in the No. 127 oil and gas block off the eastern coast of Viet Nam. Investment of 49 million US Dollars in the No. 128 oil and gas block, once again, did not bring any economic benefits to the company. The company seems to be very cautious in investing in new projects now. An official said: “In the end, the company needs to benefit commercially. If there is no oil and natural gas, it is not possible to continue making investments.”
The report says that New Delhi’s increasing affinity to Tokyo and Washington has aroused the concern of the Chinese. While India does not want to further alarm the Chinese, however, it is also unwilling to abandon an old ally.
2015-12-21 10:55:57 来源：参考消息网 责任编辑：朱方雨
【延伸阅读】外媒称越南会在南海“默默”支持印度[Extended reading] Foreign media says that Viet Nam will “silently” support India in the South China Sea.
Reference News Network report dated December 27th – An article titled “Viet Nam and the South China Sea: Hypothetical Scenarios” written by one of the institute’s research interns, Amruta Karambelkar, was recently published in the website of the Indian Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS). The article said that, in October this year, the Indian Oil and Natural Gas Corporation overseas investment subsidiary company, ONGC Videsh Ltd. and the Viet Nam National Oil Company signed an agreement, which will be valid for three years, for making new investments and strengthening energy exploration. The exploration area is located in the South China Sea. China, however, has raised objections to this agreement as it holds that India has violated Chinese sovereignty. In case China takes actions against India, what kind of responses will Viet Nam give?
The article has made the following three kinds of conjectures:
Scenario 1: Viet Nam supports India
The article said that the reasons for this type of situation could be: Regional factors and bilateral factors
Viet Nam has all along been strongly opposed to China’s sovereignty claims in the South China Sea. The South China Sea dispute has a number of stakeholders, both from the region and international powers. All parties that have sovereignty claims unanimously oppose China on this issue. This regional posturing has provided support for Vietnam’s firmly adhered stand against China. In addition, the United States has announced that it would maintain its navigation rights in the South China Sea. America’s “Return to Asia” is an effective check and balance against China. Consequently, regional and international consensus on opposition to the Chinese assertions of territorial sovereignty will allow Viet Nam to take a bold stance on this issue.
The article pointed out that, in 2007, India and Viet Nam formally established a strategic partnership to inject new vitality into their bilateral relations. Viet Nam and India have long term historical relations with each other and both the countries have border disputes with China. The two countries are seeking to revive bilateral relations that are based on the sharing of common experiences. It is obvious that India is helping Viet Nam to strengthen its maritime power.
Scenario 2: Viet Nam and China on the same side
The article said that the reasons for this type of situation could be: Relations with China
Sino Vietnamese relations can be traced back to more than a thousand years. If we do not take into account historical grievances or the current state of the relations between the two countries, Viet Nam should hope to develop good relations with China. Viet Nam has always tried to maintain a balance between its bilateral relations with India and those with China. To give an instance, in October 2011, while the Vietnamese President was paying a visit to India, a representative delegation of the Communist Party of Viet Nam visited China and agreed to strengthen military co-operation. If Viet Nam wants to take a pragmatic approach and wants to consider its long-term interests, it would not want to provoke a resource rich and powerful neighbor with whom it shares a common boundary.
The article pointed out that the relationship between Viet Nam and India is unlikely to affect its relations with China. If a comparison is drawn between the two bilateral relationships based on economic ties, the Indian investment in Viet Nam is almost inconsequential as compared to China’s massive investments.
Scenario 3: what is it most likely to be?
Despite Viet Nam recently carrying out an expansion of its armed forces, it will not seek an armed confrontation with China. In the eventuality of a war, it will act like any other country would act in the same situation; first defend its territory and all its assets in that territory. More specifically, it is likelier to seek military support from other stakeholders. Viet Nam should consider the maintenance of good relations with China as important as the strategic partnership agreement that it has signed with India. If Viet Nam had to defend the assets of India’s ONGC Videsh in the South China Sea, it must seriously consider “By doing so, what do I stand to gain?”
The article said that Viet Nam will quietly support the interests of India in the South China Sea, nothing more than this. In case of a scenario where India uses its army, Viet Nam, considering its relations with India, may also reach out to support the country militarily. Thus, Viet Nam will pursue a policy of pragmatism and opportunism.