Journal : People's Daily (Chinese) Date : Author : NA Page No. : 3
URL : http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2015-12/28/nw.D110000renmrb_20151228_3-03.htm

探寻玄奘足迹 品悟中印友谊

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关于玄奘西行,印象最深的就是《西游记》里唐僧西天取经的故事。前不久赴印度北方地区之行进一步加深了我对玄奘的敬佩和崇拜之情。

What impresses me most about Xuanzang’s journey to the west, is his story “The Journey to the West”. My own recent journey to Northern India further deepens my admiration and regard for Xuanzang.

印度比哈尔邦是佛教的故乡,佛祖释迦牟尼顿悟、修行多在此地,名称由来也与佛教有关。著名的那烂陀大学遗址与玄奘密不可分。据《大唐西域记》记载,全盛时期的那烂陀大学是当时世界佛学研究的最高学府,拥有1万多名师生,可惜后来多次毁于外来入侵者之手,尘封于地下数百年无人知晓,近代人根据《大唐西域记》才将其发掘出来。

Bihar Pradesh of India is the hometown of Buddhism, the Buddha Siddha awakened and got enlightenment here, and its name is related to Buddhism. The famous site of Nalanda University is very much related to Xuanzang. According to ‘Records of the Western Regions’ of the Great Tang (dynasty of China), in its heyday, Nalanda University was the highest Buddhist institution in the world with over ten thousand students and faculty. Unfortunately, it was destroyed many times by outsiders and buried underground for hundreds of years without anyone’s acknowledge. Only recently was it discovered when  the “Records of the Western Regions of the Great Tang” were studied.

遗址建筑群蔚为壮观。我们看到僧房里有可放置蜡烛的壁龛,眼前浮现出玄奘挑灯夜读的身影。他只身一人在那烂陀苦读6年,毕业后又执教1年。回国前学校全力挽留,但玄奘坚持回国弘法,对祖国的殷殷深情感人至深。

The cluster of buildings at  the sites is quite magnificent.  Seeing the niche for candles in the monk’s room, we could imagine Xuanzang’s figure reading under a nightlight. He spent six years studying in Nalanda alone and one more year teaching after graduation. The university tried to retain him before he left, but Xuanzang insisted to return to his country and propagate Buddhism. His love for his country is quite touching.

追随玄奘的足迹,我们来到王舍城。附近的灵鹫山顶有一平台,据传是当年佛祖的传法台。立于台上,面对夕阳,远处群峦蜿蜒,近处层绿叠翠,空谷传音,思接千载。《大唐西域记》中描写的“孤标特起”“空翠相映”,与眼前景观完全吻合,不由赞叹玄奘非凡的洞察力和表现力。

Following Xuanzang’s footprint, we came to House of the King. There is a platform on top of Mount Gridhrakuta nearby. It is Sakyamuni’s lecture stage, according to the legend. Standing on the platform, facing sunset, you can see meandering mountains faraway, different greens close by, you hear echoes from the valley and your mind connects to time thousands years back. That sight is identical to Xuanzang’s description from the book, which makes you praise Xuanzang’s insight and expression greatly.

菩提伽耶在印地语中是“智慧之地”。相传佛祖在它处苦修6年无果,来此修行后顿悟。佛祖圆寂后260年,孔雀王朝的阿育王为纪念佛陀悟道,在此建摩诃菩提寺。千百年来该塔历经坎坷,直到19世纪中叶,人们根据《大唐西域记》描述才重新将其发掘、重建。塔的西侧便是著名的菩提树,佛陀在此树下得道成佛。现在的这棵树是1870年从斯里兰卡移植的,今天仍枝繁叶茂,根基交错,展现出佛教旺盛的生命力和感召力。

Bodhi Gaya means land of wisdom in Hindi. According to legend, the Buddha meditated six years elsewhere without any achievement, and awoke into enlightenment after he cultivated there. Two hundred and sixty years later, Ashoka, the Maurya emperor of India, built Mahabodhi Temple at this place as a commemoration of the Buddha’s awakening. This temple underwent rough experiences over thousands years, and was dug out and reconstructed in the middle of the 19th century according to Records of the Western Regions of the Great Tang. On the west side of the tower, there is the famous Bodhi tree where the Buddha achieved perfect enlightenment. The tree there now was moved here from Sri Lanka in 1870, and it is still with luxuriant foliage which represents the vigorous bio-energy and charisma of Buddhism.

旅行最后一站是鹿野苑。鹿野苑被视为佛祖“初转法轮”之地,在佛教史上占据特殊重要地位,玄奘造访鹿野苑时,惊叹此地“区界八分,连垣周堵,层轩重阁,丽穷规矩”。可见1000多年前的鹿野苑多么壮观、多么气派。

The last stop of our journey is Sarnath. Sarnath is considered to be the place where Buddha first turned the wheel of Dharma, and has a significant status in Buddhist history. When Xuanzhang visited Sarnath, he exclaimed in admiration: “eight divisions, continuous walls, layered buildings, dignified beauty”. It is thus clear how splendid and stylish Sarnath was over a thousand years ago.

值得一提的是,这个遗址出土了两件最珍贵的文物。一个是佛陀初转法轮石像,形成于公元前一世纪,是迄今为止发现的释迦牟尼最早的塑像。现在在世界各地佛教寺庙中的类似雕像,都源自这个“鼻祖”。另一个是阿育王石柱,柱头雕有4只雄狮,雄狮柱头于1950年被确定为印度国徽,成为印度民族的象征。

It bears mention is that two pieces of precious historical relics were unearthed here. One is a statue of the Buddha giving his first lecture. It was created in the 1 century B.C. and was the earliest Buddha statue found. All similar statues in temples around the world now have originated from this one. The other one is an Asokan pillar with the four lion sculpture at the top. Lion sculpture became the national emblem of India and symbol of Hinduism.

印度北方之行不仅是沉思历史、净化心灵之旅,也是重新发现玄奘、深化认识中印传统友好之旅。据新那烂陀大学校方介绍,印度佛教遗址有80%根据《大唐西域记》记载挖掘。由此不难理解,印度人为何如此感恩玄奘、纪念玄奘、传颂玄奘。

The journey to North India not only allows us to think about history and purify our heart, it also allows to rediscover Xuanzang, and deepen our understanding of Sino-India traditional friendship. From the introduction of the new Nalanda University we know, 80% of Buddhist sites in India were discovered according to “Records of the Western Regions of the Great Tang”; thus, it is not difficult to understand why Xuanzang is so much appreciated, commemorated and eulogized by Indian people.

站在中印政府合修的玄奘纪念堂里,凝视着这位伟大的中印友好先驱者的铜像,回忆一路走来的见闻,万千感慨之余我不禁顿悟:玄奘的西行壮举、献身精神、坚定信念、执着追求,正是我们光大中印友好事业所要继承和发扬的。

Standing in the memorial hall of Xuanzang established by Chinese and Indian government together, staring at the bronze statue of this great pioneer of Sino-India friendship, recalling all we learnt during the journey, all sorts of feelings swelled up in my heart and I couldn’t help  gain an insight: to carry forward Sino-India friendship, we need to inherit and carry on Xuanzang’s heroic undertaking of a journey to the west, in a spirit of selfl-sacrifice, strengthened conviction and passionate pursuit.

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