Journal : People's Daily (Chinese) Date : Author : NA Page No. : 21
URL : http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2016-02/03/nw.D110000renmrb_20160203_5-21.htm

印度“互联网约束”政策有特色

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印度互联网产业发展迅速,社交网络媒体普及率较高。2015年,印度网民数量已高达1.5亿,其中社交网络媒体用户数量超过1.3亿,年增长率达26%。印度网民日均使用社交网络媒体的时间超过2小时。以脸谱、推特等为代表的社交网络媒体已成为印度主流社会重要交流平台,对印度社会的影响不断增大。面对社交网络媒体浪潮冲击,印度政府重视相关舆情管理,在摸索中逐步形成具有印度特色的本土化做法。

India’s internet industry has developed rapidly, with the use of social media getting more popular. In 2015, the number of Internet users in India reached 150 million. Of those, the number of social media users exceeded 130 million, with annual growth rate increasing to 26%.  Internet users in India spend more than 2 hours per day on social media websites. Facebook and Twitter have become important platforms of communication for mainstream Indian society. Their effect on the Indian society is also increasing. Facing the increasingly important role played by social media, Indian government wants to give importance to public opinion management, and gradually wants to develop a tool for localization with Indian characteristics.

印度政府的“互联网约束”政策颇具特色,管理方式介于“网络自由”与“网络主权”之间,择各自之长为己所用。

Indian Government’s “Internet restraint” policy is full of features, different management methods exist between “Internet freedom” and “Internet sovereignty”, with the option of choosing each constantly.

印度政府对社交媒体的约束较多,对于不良内容或言论,坚决打击治理。印度通信和信息技术部部长普拉萨德曾表示:“错误利用社交媒体,特别是传播偏激、极端的言论会对社会稳定带来威胁。通信和信息技术部将和内政部协调合作,采取必要行动。”2016年1月,印度喀拉拉邦一居民在脸谱上就帕坦科特恐怖袭击发表侮辱性、煽动性言论,攻击政府,此人因此被警方拘捕并以“煽动罪”提起诉讼。据脸谱发布的政府请求报告,印度政府2015年上半年对脸谱请求内容限制次数超过1.5万次,是2014年下半年请求次数的3倍,为全球最高。

Indian government has more restraint on social media to combat and control inappropriate content. Indian Minister of Communications and Information Technology, Prasad said: “using social media in the wrong way, especially spreading extreme rhetoric will threaten social stability. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology will cooperate with Home Ministry to take necessary action”. In Jan. 2016, a person from Indian state of Kerala published an insulting and provocative speech on Facebook regarding the Pathankot terrorist attacks. This person was arrested on charge of ‘sedition’. According to a report issued by Facebook, the Indian Government, in the first half of 2015, made more than 15000 content restriction requests to Facebook; it was three times than the requests made in the second half of 2014. The Indian Government ranks number one in requesting content restrictions.

2008年国际恐怖分子通过互联网策划对孟买的袭击,成为印度加强网络舆论治理的标志事件。当年印度修订通过的《信息技术法》是近年印度管理社交网络媒体的最主要法律依据。该法规定,通过网络信息手段发送具有攻击性的信息,或持续发送令人感到或产生烦恼、不便、危险、干扰、侮辱、伤害、刑事恐吓等信息,可判处监禁并处罚金。印度政府对该条款拥有较大解读空间和执法自由度,常以此为据删除网络信息或封禁网络和社交媒体账号,甚至拘捕信息传播者。

In 2008, international terrorists planned the Mumbai attacks using the internet. It reinforced the idea of managing public opinion on the internet. That same year the Government revised the “Information Technology law” and in recent years it has become the most important foundation of social media management by the Government. According to the provisions of this law, anyone found sending aggressive information or sending information to continuously trouble people, make them uncomfortable, threaten, interfere, insult, injure and criminal intimidation etc., can be imprisonment and fined. Indian government has a lot of leeway in interpretation and enforcement of the law. They can delete network information or close network and social media accounts  and even arrest the disseminators.

2014年,印度有42人因触犯法律条款被警方拘捕。2015年3月,讲述德里恶性性侵案的纪录片《印度的女儿》在网上热传,对印度国家形象带来不利影响。在印度政府要求下,各社交媒体平台和视频网站屏蔽了该纪录片。2015年截至11月,印度已有844个社交网络媒体的有关内容或页面被封禁。

In 2014, 42 people were arrested by the police for breaking the law. In March 2015, the documentary “India’s daughter”, based on the Delhi rape case spread quickly online. It affected India’s image adversely. Social media platforms and video sites blocked this documentary at the Indian Government’s request,   844 social media pages and related content have been banned in India since November 2015,.

在实际操作中,印度探索出一套高效务实的管理办法,统一归口管理。

In practice, India explores centralized management through a set of efficient and pragmatic management means.

一是早在2004年,印度政府就在通信和信息技术部下成立计算机应急团队。2008年通过《信息技术法》修正案,进一步明确该团队职责和权力,使之成为应对网络攻击、网络舆情管理的统一归口单位,政府和法院发出的“清除通知”均由该团队转交相关社交网络媒体公司或网站并督其执行。

First, as early as 2004, the Indian government established a Computer Emergency Response Team under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. The “Information Technology law” was amended in 2008, which further clarified the Emergency Response Team’s rights and responsibilities. So this Team became a unified department to deal with network attacks, network public opinion management.  The “removal notice” issued by the government and court should be transferred from this Team to the related social media company or website as well as supervise its execution.

二是建立与社交网络媒体公司合作关系。印度互联网与社会研究中心表示,印度政府与推特公司达成一致,该公司须执行由印度法院依法发出的“清除通知”。印度还积极合理利用脸谱的政府请求渠道,依据其行业自律规定进行内容限制。

Secondly, establishing cooperation with social media and internet companies.  India Internet and Social Research Center said that the Indian government made an agreement with Twitter according to which the company will carry out “removal notices” issued by the Indian courts.  India also actively uses government request channels on Facebook, and requests content restriction according to industry provisions.

三是坚持个案处理。印度新闻与新媒体学院称,为确保言论自由,印度坚持涉事言论个别删除、个别封禁的个案处理办法,甚至对涉事人员进行抓捕,但不进行大面积封禁。同时对删除、封禁行为进行地域限制,相关效果仅对本国IP地址有效。2012年,印度安德拉邦议员奥瓦斯因发表煽动宗教冲突的言论被拘捕。德里法院随后向脸谱、推特等社交网络媒体公司发送“清除通知”,成功将相关言论视频删除。

Thirdly, insisting on processing of cases individually. According to the Indian news and New Media Institute,India adheres to processing cases of deletion and bans on speech, even arrests, individually but does not ban a large area, in order to ensure freedom of speech, . At the same time, carry out  restrictions, viz. deletions and bans, geographically, so that the impact is limited to the domestic IP address only.  In 2012, the Andhra Pradesh MP, Mr Owaisi, was arrested for a speech inciting religious conflict. The Delhi court subsequently sent a “clear notification” to Facebook, Twitter and other social media companies and had the related videos deleted.

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